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ARC - 117 INTRODUCTION TO PREHISTORY
The course will introduce students to the Prehistory of the Eastern Mediterranean. The chronological periods, which will be covered are the Neolithic and the Chalcolithic, as well as, questions relating to the transition to the Bronze Age. The course will focus on issues such as the way of life in these first farming communities, architecture, burial customs and technology. As an integral part of the course there will be visits to the Archaeological Museum of Nicosia as well as archaeological sites of this period

ARC - 118 THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE CITY KINGDOMS OF CYPRUS
Introductory course on the archaeology of the Mediterranean cultures during the Bronze Age. The geographical coordinates of the course are defined by the Greek peninsula to the west and by the Syro-Palestinian coast to the east. Although the emphasis is placed upon the development of the Aegean Bronze Age cultures - the Trojan, the Cycladic, the Helladic and the Minoan - an elementary introduction is also provided for the Egyptian, the Canaanite and the Cypriote Bronze Age cultures in the Eastern Mediterranean.

ARC - 123 INTRODUCTION TO CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY I: FROM THE GEOMETRIC TO THE CLASSICAL PERIOD
This course examines the period from 1100-330 B.C. In other words, it comprises the Geometric, Archaic and Classical times. It investigates Ancient Greek Art and culture from the end of the Mycenaean world and the passage to the Geometric period, to the Archaic times that led to the unprecedented blossoming of the Classical period. It presents the specific character of each period and analyses its characteristics and achievements. It is based upon an initial presentation of representative works and monuments of each period and upon the analysis of works of sculpture, vase painting, monumental painting, architecture and metalworking. Furthermore, it investigates phenomena such as the appearance of myths in Greek art, the establishment of the human figure in the centre of artistic representation, and the quests that led to the genesis of monumental sculpture and monumental Greek temples.

ARC - 124 INTRODUCTION TO CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY II (HELLENISTIC AND ROMAN PERIODS)
General survey of the Hellenistic and Roman world: Hellenistic Kingdoms (323-30 B.C.), early Rome (264-30 B.C.) and the Roman Empire (27 B.C.-4th cent. A.D.). Main stages of development and characteristics of the two periods. Presentation and analysis of key monuments and works of art.

ARC - 135 INTRODUCTION TO EARLY CHRISTIAN ARTA AND ARCHAEOLOGY (4TH –7TH C.)
A survey of the Early Christian architecture and Art to the Christian World, with broad reference to the monuments of Cyprus.

ARC - 140 INTRODUCTION TO FOLK ART - TRADITIONAL CRAFTSMEN
Introduction: Definition of Folk Culture, Folk/Traditional Art, Folklore, Ethnology, Ethnography Cultural Anthropology, etc.

Ethnography - Folklore in its modern perspective.Survey of research in the material life of the recent past both in Cyprus and Greece.Methods, sources and importance of Folk Art.The role of Ethnographic Museums in a modern society.Historical background: Period of Ottoman Rule, Period of British Administration.Socio-economic conditions during the time of floruit of Folk Art in Greece and Cyprus.

Traditional Craftsmen

Methods of recording traditional crafts.Processing of raw materials (cotton, flax, hemp, wool)Weaving, silk-makingCalico-printing, leatherworkBasketry, wood carving, stone carvingMetalworkPottery-making etc.

Lectures are accompanied by slides and video tapes. The course includes also visits to Ethnographic Museums.

ARC - 141 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIROMENTAL ARCHAEOLOGY
Unlike other fields of archaeology, the subjects of environmental archaeology do not include works of art, building, monuments or other artifacts. Environmental archaeology studies plant, animal and even human remains, relics of ancient agricultural activities, and other issues relating to the ancient environment. The study of all these enables us to reconstruct and better understand the ancient environment. With environmental archaeology we learn about the whole of human life in the past. The course will introduce students to the various fields of environmental archaeology (geoarchaeology, archaeobotany, zooarchaeology and palaeopathology) and the methods applied in each of these for the study of ancient environmental remains. As an integral part of the course, there will be visits to the Archaeological Museum of Nicosia as well as archaeological sites of this period.

ARC - 156 INTRODUCTION TO ANCIENT TECHNOLOGY B
This course will investigate various aspects of ancient technology such as: building methods and materials, means of transport on land and at the sea, ancient methods of communication, and methods of measuring, time, distance, volume and weight. One of the main aims of this course is to show how deep the roots of today's technology really are. As an integral part of the course there will be visits to the Archaeological Museum of Nicosia.

ARC - 225 ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE HELLENISTIC PERIOD
The Hellenistic period starts with the death of Alexander the Great and the division of his immense kingdom between his successors. It was out of this division of the ancient world into different smaller states, governed by Greek rulers, that Hellenistic culture was born. The different kingdoms had many common characteristics, such as language and religion, and this led to the creation of a cultural and artistic koine. The course will first examine the archaeological (and historical) evidence relative to the creation of these kingdoms and then analyse the main monuments and works of art of the period. These reflect, on one hand, the afore-mentioned koine, and, on the other, traditions that developed independently in each kingdom. Special emphasis will be given to Ptolemaic Egypt, the metropolis of the Hellenistic world.

ARC - 227 ROME CENTRE OF THE ANCIENT WORLD
Myths relating to the foundation of Rome. Brief survey of the history of Rome, up to the end of the Republic. Detailed study of Imperial Rome: topography, imperial forums, public buildings etc.

ARC - 250 ARCHAEOMETRY
Archaeometry has been defined as the application of physical and chemical methods to the study of ancient remains in an effort to gain a better and more accurate understanding of their age as well as the materials and methods of construction. Archaeometry has often been identified with dating techniques such as Radiocarbon and Thermoluminescence. Dating, however, is just one of the many applications of archaeometry. This course is an introduction to the basic techniques applied in archaeometry in an effort to address a number of archaeological problems such as dating, archaeological Prospection, material studies, provenance etc. This course is also offered as an elective to students from the departments of Physics and Chemistry.
ARC - 289 ANCIENT GREEK ARCHITECTURE
Architecture forms one of the major research fields of Classical Archaeology. Its monuments, that is the religious, public or private buildings, in Gods' precincts, agorae, cities and acropoleis of Ancient Greece shaped the place where the religious and political history of the Greek world evolved. For this reason, this course does not only aim to study the typology of the architectural types and to present the development of the various orders of the ancient Greek architecture, from the Early Iron age to the Hellenistic period, and from the Greek Mainland and the islands to the west coast of Asia Minor. It further aims to research topics such as the evolution of the temple architecture, from the simple orthogonal buildings to the monumental temples, the spatial relation of the buildings to the surrounding space, especially in the sanctuaries, the search for and the achievement of monumentality, the function of some architectural types, and in general the reflection of the social and political circumstances of each period in architecture.

ARC - 297 GREEK SANCTUARIES: FOUNDATION AND EVOLUTION
Greek sanctuaries do not only form the places where ancient Greeks forged their religious concepts, through myth and cult; much more they are the places where the social and political consciousness was awakened and a panhellenic concept was born. Since their early phases they were associated with the history of the Greek city-states and followed their evolution. The musical and athletic competitions in the great panhellenic sanctuaries, such as Olympia and Delphi, fuelled the common, panhellenic concept and turned the Gods' precincts into places of social exhibition, economic strength and political propaganda. This course aims to research topics such as the spatial organisation and the architectural development, from the simple altars of the Early Iron Age to the monumental temples, the problem of cultic continuity from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age, the expectations and the goals of the votaries and the types of the votives, the special functions of the sanctuaries as oracles or places of initiation rituals, the meaning and procedure of sacrifices and the act of dedication.

ARC - 298 ATTIC BLACK FIGURE AND RED FIGURE VASE PAINTING
Despite its humble material, Attic Black Figure and Red Figure vase painting is among the best studied categories of ancient Greek art of the Archaic and Classical period. This is not only due to the high quality and huge numbers of the attic vases that have been preserved from the late 7th cent. to the late 4th cent. B.C., or the variety of their shapes and decoration. More than that, it is due to their importance for the research of one of the most interesting phenomena of Antiquity, that is the emergence of the city-state of Athens as one of the most important centres of the ancient Greek world. The recovery of Attic Black Figure and Red Figure vases all over the Mediterranean and even outside from it, witnesses to the appreciation they already enjoyed during the Archaic and the Classical period, and provides information on ancient economy and trade. The dedication of the vase painters in the depiction of the human figure and the selection of subjects referring to everyday life and, mostly, to Greek myths, allows the investigation of topics such as ancient Greek religion and cult, myths and rituals, even ancient Greek theatre. Moreover, subjects and style of vase painting reflect the lost works of monumental painting. It is only thanks to the vase paintings, that we gain an insight in the paintings admired by the ancient writers.

ARC - 343 ARTS, CRAFTS, TECHNIQUES OF HERITAGE (18th – 20th c.)

The aim of this seminar is:

to train students to record traditional craftsmen and workshops (buildings, tools and other equipment, raw materials, techniques, products, etc.), to evaluate ethnographic data and to compare them with information from published or unpublished (manuscripts) sources.to promote the research of arts, crafts and techniques of heritage, and the understanding of their contribution in the life and economy of the preindustrial society of the recent past

ARC - 327 ANTIOCH AND THE SYRO-PALESTINIAN COAST
Antioch was one of the most important cities of the Roman period. The intensive excavations of the 1930´s, before the area was submerged by the waters of the Euphrates dam, brought to light a large number of buildings and other remains (including a superb series of mosaics), that reflect the majesty of the city. Antioch has, once again, come to the forefront after the very successful exhibition and colloquium that took place in the USA during 2000/01. The seminar will examine the foundation and development of the city, its topography and various aspects of its cultural and artistic life.
HIS - 105 INTRODUCTION TO HISTORICAL STUDIES, METHODOLOGY AND PHILOSOPHY OF HISTORY
General theoretical issues. The formation of historiographic tradition (before historiography, birth and development of historiography from the beginning until the mid-19th century, formation of the modern science of history and methodology, new trends, interdisciplinarity of contemporary historiography). The technique of historical research. Writing history (preparation, collection, archiving and processing historical material, analysis of historical data, synthesis).

HIS - 108 INTRODUCTION TO MODERN AND CONTEMPORARY GREEK HISTORY
Introduction to modern Greek historiography and a brief view of modern and contemporary Greek history from Ottoman Rule to the fall of the dictatorship in Greece and the Turkish Invasion of Cyprus. A survey aiming at an awareness of the historical sequence of events, the development of political and state institutions, and social and political changes.

HIS - 112 INTRODUCTION TO BYZANTINE HISTORY
This course aims, in accordance with its introductory character, to provide the students with the basic knowledge of the different periods of Byzantine history from early Byzantine period until 1453. Special emphasis will be given to the basic chronological facts of each period, to the changing geographical expansion of the Byzantine territory, to the role and functionality of the institutions of the state mechanism and administrative system of the Byzantine empire as well as to the peculiar features of Byzantine society within the limits of the medieval world. Moreover, the endogenous and exogenous factors which were decisive for the formation of political and religious powers will be analysed, as well as those related to political decisions during the different phases of Byzantine history.
HIS - 134 INTRODUCTION TO MEDIEVAL WESTERN HISTORY
Basic chronological survey of the main events and currents in the West from the decline and fall of the Western Roman Empire to the Protestant Reformation. Students take a midterm exam that covers the Early Middle Ages (until 1000) and the High Middle Ages until 1191. The final exam stresses the second half of the High Middle Ages (1191-1300) and the Late Middle Ages (1300-1525). The basic text is Zacharias Tsirpanlis' Introduction to Medieval History (in Greek), although the students read sections from primary sources and modern works of history, often in English (but sometimes in Greek). They write a paper based on a medieval text, but first they wok in the library with contemporary writings from scholarly journals and books (in various languages) in order to complete an annotated bibliography of five entries. Two lessons are given over to slides of medieval architecture, and one to a visiting lecture.

HIS - 144 INTRODUCTION TO ANCIENT HISTORY
The aim of this course is, on one hand to provide students with the basic tools for their study of various topics of Ancient History and, on the other side, to present them a wide overview of both Greek and Roman History from the "Dark Ages" to the Late Roman Empire. It is divided in 3 main parts:

The consideration of the quantity and quality of our available sources (Historiographical, Epigraphical and Archaeological evidence).The formation and the development of guidelines to ancient Greek History, putting particular emphasis on the following political and social aspects:The transition from the Mycenaean society to the City-state.Social and constitutional transformations in the Archaic Times (Legislation-Tyranny-Colonisation).Sparta and Athens: From the Greek-Persian conflicts to the Peloponnesian War.The struggles over the hegemony during the endemic crisis of the City-state in 4th century B.C. and the emergence of Macedonia.The Macedonians as a vehicle of the diffusion of Greek cultural values in the East from Alexander to 168 B.C.Section C includes the presentation of the main events of Roman History, highlighting the prevailing phenomena which led to the transformation of a single city-state to an imperial power. The following subjects will be stressed:Rome, the Latins and Etruscans from 8th to 6th century B.C.The conquest of Italy and the different forms of political organisation through analysis of the Roman society and its institutions from the 5th century B.C. to the Annibalic Wars.The political and military stages of Roman attitude towards the Hellenistic World.Causes, duration and effects of the Civil wars.The constitutional patterns and the social basis of Augustus' Principate.The organization of the Roman Empire.

HIS - 181 INTRODUCTION TO MODERN EUROPEAN HISTORY (1789-1918)
This is an introductory survey of the history of Europe from the French Revolution to the end of the First World War. What is attempted is a "broad brush" survey of developments (mainly but not exclusively political and diplomatic) that have shaped the course of developments in Europe. Themes that are developed in the course include:

The French Revolution – Napoleonic Europe – The Congress of Vienna – The Revolutions of 1830 and 1848 – Napoleon III – The Franco-German War of 1870 and the unification of Germany – the scramble for empire – the origins of the first world war – the outbreak and the course of first world war – the Russian Revolution – the end of the war.

HIS - 221 THE EARLY BYZANTINE PERIOD (A.D. 330-610)
During the course of this lesson, which will take the form of a series of lectures, we shall attempt to understand the main features which constitute the late antique, or early Byzantine world, and thus appreciate reaction of contemporaries. Students will be encouraged to present oral works on chosen subject. If time permits, selected="true" passages will be studied, and emphasis will be laid on key subjects, such as the personality of Julian the Apostate, or the fall of Rome in A.D. 476.

HIS - 223 THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES: BYZANTIUM, THE WEST, ISLAM (A.D 600-900).
The period between A.D 600-900, is generally known as the early middle ages, and it is crucial as formative period for many of the institutions, characteristics and conditions which developed in later periods.
The course will aim at portraying the period horizontally, that is, examine the parallel developments in all parts of the area under consideration. This will allow us draw some conclusions as to the special characteristics pertaining to each century, rather than a thematic, isolated appreciation, spanning a period of more centuries.
As expected, no single work will be sufficient for study, and students should refer to more sources, to be pointed out. It will also be absolutely essential for them to follow closely the lectures given in class.

HIS - 242: HELLENISTIC HISTORY: THE PTOLEMIES
This particular course deals with Ptolemaic Egypt from the 3rd century BC until 31 BC, with a survey of its political history followed by an analysis of the society and institutions of the kingdom, its economic and religious life, and also by an examination of the ideology of the Ptolemies with respect to the Greek conquerors and the conquered Egyptians. The course pays special attention to the relations between Alexandria and the provinces (Cyprus, Palestine, Cyrene, and the Aegean Islands), and it involves an analysis of the sources (narrative sources, inscriptions, papyri, archaeological finds). The final segment of the course is devoted to the issue of the Roman involvement in Ptolemaic Egypt from 168 BC to 31 BC, the period in which Alexandria, Cyprus, Athens, and Delos gradually fall under indirect Roman rule, exclusively serving its economic interests.

HIS - 249 CLASSICAL ATHENS
This course concerns the evolution of the institutions of the Athenian state from Solon until the end of the Peloponnesian War, and involves reading Aristotle's Constitution of Athens and the Pseudo-Xenophon's Constitution of Athens. It also deals with the topography of Athens in the Archaic and Classical eras, with an emphasis on the Ancient Agora and the connection between institutions and topography. The cults and religion of the city are treated as well.

HIS - 285 EUROPE 1918-1945: FROM THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES TO THE FALL OF NAZI GERMANY

The Treaty of Versailles – victors and vanquished – the new EuropeRevolutionary movements 1919-21 The 1920s: in search of a new balanceCooperation and collective security. The League of NationsThe Great Economic Crisis and its consequencesFascism and Nazism in Europe. Authoritarian models and their spread in the rest of EuropeTowards war: power politics and alliancesDress rehearsal: The Spanish civil warEuropean Culture in the inter-war yearsThe Second World War

HΙS - 286 HISTORY OF SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE (c. 1800-c. 1990)
The module surveys the history of the peoples and states of the Balkan peninsula from the early 19th c. to date. The geographical focus is on the land mass covered by contemporary Albania, the former Yugoslavia and Bulgaria (with the necessary references to similarities and differences with Greece and to a lesser extent the Ottoman Empire). Within this chronological framework, a number of issues will be discussed:

a) ethnicity and national development of the Balkan states under foreign (mainly Ottoman) occupation; the movements for national emancipation and nationalism; irredentism; great power intervention; b) economic and political development and modernisation; the role and competition of the Great Powers, the clash of (local and imported) ideologies in the region during the 20th century: socialism, communism, fascism and their local variants; the effects of local and world wars on the region; the role the region played during the Cold war; the fall of communism and the role of the region in the new era.

HIS - 287 POLITICAL HISTORY OF MODERN GREECE (1914-1949): FROM THE FIRST WORLD WAR TO THE END OF THE CIVIL WAR
Political and state developments. Political parties and institutions. The Greek foreign policy. The First World War, the "national schism" and the Ionian disaster. Military interventions (1922-1935) and the Metaxas dictatorship. The German occupation (1941-1944) and the Civil War (1946-1949).

HIS - 213 DIPLOMACY AND INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION IN BYZANTIUM
The subject matter of this lesson is the institutions, the ideological principles and the different kinds of communication which developed the Byzantine Empire during its diplomatic contacts with its neighbouring peoples. On the base of selected="true" texts of the primary sources there will be discussed topics like the Byzantine strategy for the approaching other peoples, the institutions of the Byzantine state for the organisation of embassies and for the reception of emissaries in the imperial court, the political objectives of Byzantine external politics as well as the mechanisms for the settlement of inter-state conflicts by means of diplomacy, the phenomena of reciprocal cultural penetration as consequence of diplomatic contacts.

HIS - 233 THE LATE MIDDLE AGES (1300-1500 A.D.)
The crisis of the 14th and 15th century: church and state, the "captivity" of the papacy in Avignon, Hundred Years' War, Black Death, Great Schism, conciliarism, heresy. The recovery 1450-1500: printing, humanism, new monarchy, international trade, unification of Spain, New World.

HIS - 282 THE HISTORY OF THE STATE OF ISRAEL FROM THE ZIONIST MOVEMENT UNTIL TODAY
The course will examine the historical context that led to the creation of the State of Israel as well as the development of the Jewish State after its establishment in 1948. The course will provide historical background and focus on the rise of the Zionist movement in Europe and on several issues of significant importance to the history of Israel such as war and peace, the party system, ideological trends in the Israel society and foreign policy.

Issues to be discussed:

The rise of the Zionist MovementWWI and the Jewish QuestionPalestine under British MandateThe Arab Revolt (1936 – 1939)WWII and the Jewish Revolt in PalestineThe first Arab – Israeli War and the establishment of the State of IsraelThe development of the Jewish StateThe party system in IsraelThe evolution of the National Security Doctrine in IsraelThe Arab – Israeli Wars of 1967 and 1973The Arab minority in IsraelThe invasion in Lebanon (1982) and the rise of the post-Zionist MovementThe Oslo Peace process

ARC - 117 INTRODUCTION TO PREHISTORY
The course will introduce students to the Prehistory of the Eastern Mediterranean. The chronological periods, which will be covered are the Neolithic and the Chalcolithic, as well as, questions relating to the transition to the Bronze Age. The course will focus on issues such as the way of life in these first farming communities, architecture, burial customs and technology. As an integral part of the course there will be visits to the Archaeological Museum of Nicosia as well as archaeological sites of this period

ARC - 118 THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE CITY KINGDOMS OF CYPRUS
Introductory course on the archaeology of the Mediterranean cultures during the Bronze Age. The geographical coordinates of the course are defined by the Greek peninsula to the west and by the Syro-Palestinian coast to the east. Although the emphasis is placed upon the development of the Aegean Bronze Age cultures - the Trojan, the Cycladic, the Helladic and the Minoan - an elementary introduction is also provided for the Egyptian, the Canaanite and the Cypriote Bronze Age cultures in the Eastern Mediterranean.
ARC - 123 INTRODUCTION TO CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY I: FROM THE GEOMETRIC TO THE CLASSICAL PERIOD
This course examines the period from 1100-330 B.C. In other words, it comprises the Geometric, Archaic and Classical times. It investigates Ancient Greek Art and culture from the end of the Mycenaean world and the passage to the Geometric period, to the Archaic times that led to the unprecedented blossoming of the Classical period. It presents the specific character of each period and analyses its characteristics and achievements. It is based upon an initial presentation of representative works and monuments of each period and upon the analysis of works of sculpture, vase painting, monumental painting, architecture and metalworking. Furthermore, it investigates phenomena such as the appearance of myths in Greek art, the establishment of the human figure in the centre of artistic representation, and the quests that led to the genesis of monumental sculpture and monumental Greek temples.

ARC - 124 INTRODUCTION TO CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY II (HELLENISTIC AND ROMAN PERIODS)
General survey of the Hellenistic and Roman world: Hellenistic Kingdoms (323-30 B.C.), early Rome (264-30 B.C.) and the Roman Empire (27 B.C.-4th cent. A.D.). Main stages of development and characteristics of the two periods. Presentation and analysis of key monuments and works of art.

ARC - 135 INTRODUCTION TO EARLY CHRISTIAN ARTA AND ARCHAEOLOGY (4TH –7TH C.)
A survey of the Early Christian architecture and Art to the Christian World, with broad reference to the monuments of Cyprus.

ARC - 140 INTRODUCTION TO FOLK ART - TRADITIONAL CRAFTSMEN
Introduction: Definition of Folk Culture, Folk/Traditional Art, Folklore, Ethnology, Ethnography Cultural Anthropology, etc.
- Ethnography - Folklore in its modern perspective.

Survey of research in the material life of the recent past both in Cyprus and Greece.Methods, sources and importance of Folk Art.The role of Ethnographic Museums in a modern society.Historical background: Period of Ottoman Rule, Period of British Administration.Socio-economic conditions during the time of floruit of Folk Art in Greece and Cyprus.

Traditional Craftsmen

Methods of recording traditional crafts.Processing of raw materials (cotton, flax, hemp, wool)Weaving, silk-makingCalico-printing, leatherworkBasketry, wood carving, stone carvingMetalworkPottery-making etc.

Lectures are accompanied by slides and video tapes. The course includes also visits to Ethnographic Museums.

ARC - 141 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIROMENTAL ARCHAEOLOGY
Unlike other fields of archaeology, the subjects of environmental archaeology do not include works of art, building, monuments or other artifacts. Environmental archaeology studies plant, animal and even human remains, relics of ancient agricultural activities, and other issues relating to the ancient environment. The study of all these enables us to reconstruct and better understand the ancient environment. With environmental archaeology we learn about the whole of human life in the past. The course will introduce students to the various fields of environmental archaeology (geoarchaeology, archaeobotany, zooarchaeology and palaeopathology) and the methods applied in each of these for the study of ancient environmental remains. As an integral part of the course, there will be visits to the Archaeological Museum of Nicosia as well as archaeological sites of this period.

ARC - 156 INTRODUCTION TO ANCIENT TECHNOLOGY B
This course will investigate various aspects of ancient technology such as: building methods and materials, means of transport on land and at the sea, ancient methods of communication, and methods of measuring, time, distance, volume and weight. One of the main aims of this course is to show how deep the roots of today's technology really are. As an integral part of the course there will be visits to the Archaeological Museum of Nicosia.

ARC - 225 ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE HELLENISTIC PERIOD
The Hellenistic period starts with the death of Alexander the Great and the division of his immense kingdom between his successors. It was out of this division of the ancient world into different smaller states, governed by Greek rulers, that Hellenistic culture was born. The different kingdoms had many common characteristics, such as language and religion, and this led to the creation of a cultural and artistic koine. The course will first examine the archaeological (and historical) evidence relative to the creation of these kingdoms and then analyse the main monuments and works of art of the period. These reflect, on one hand, the afore-mentioned koine, and, on the other, traditions that developed independently in each kingdom. Special emphasis will be given to Ptolemaic Egypt, the metropolis of the Hellenistic world.

ARC - 227 ROME CENTRE OF THE ANCIENT WORLD
Myths relating to the foundation of Rome. Brief survey of the history of Rome, up to the end of the Republic. Detailed study of Imperial Rome: topography, imperial forums, public buildings etc.

ARC - 250 ARCHAEOMETRY
Archaeometry has been defined as the application of physical and chemical methods to the study of ancient remains in an effort to gain a better and more accurate understanding of their age as well as the materials and methods of construction. Archaeometry has often been identified with dating techniques such as Radiocarbon and Thermoluminescence. Dating, however, is just one of the many applications of archaeometry. This course is an introduction to the basic techniques applied in archaeometry in an effort to address a number of archaeological problems such as dating, archaeological Prospection, material studies, provenance etc. This course is also offered as an elective to students from the departments of Physics and Chemistry.
ARC - 289 ANCIENT GREEK ARCHITECTURE
Architecture forms one of the major research fields of Classical Archaeology. Its monuments, that is the religious, public or private buildings, in Gods' precincts, agorae, cities and acropoleis of Ancient Greece shaped the place where the religious and political history of the Greek world evolved. For this reason, this course does not only aim to study the typology of the architectural types and to present the development of the various orders of the ancient Greek architecture, from the Early Iron age to the Hellenistic period, and from the Greek Mainland and the islands to the west coast of Asia Minor. It further aims to research topics such as the evolution of the temple architecture, from the simple orthogonal buildings to the monumental temples, the spatial relation of the buildings to the surrounding space, especially in the sanctuaries, the search for and the achievement of monumentality, the function of some architectural types, and in general the reflection of the social and political circumstances of each period in architecture.

ARC - 297 GREEK SANCTUARIES: FOUNDATION AND EVOLUTION
Greek sanctuaries do not only form the places where ancient Greeks forged their religious concepts, through myth and cult; much more they are the places where the social and political consciousness was awakened and a panhellenic concept was born. Since their early phases they were associated with the history of the Greek city-states and followed their evolution. The musical and athletic competitions in the great panhellenic sanctuaries, such as Olympia and Delphi, fuelled the common, panhellenic concept and turned the Gods' precincts into places of social exhibition, economic strength and political propaganda. This course aims to research topics such as the spatial organisation and the architectural development, from the simple altars of the Early Iron Age to the monumental temples, the problem of cultic continuity from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age, the expectations and the goals of the votaries and the types of the votives, the special functions of the sanctuaries as oracles or places of initiation rituals, the meaning and procedure of sacrifices and the act of dedication.

ARC - 298 ATTIC BLACK FIGURE AND RED FIGURE VASE PAINTING
Despite its humble material, Attic Black Figure and Red Figure vase painting is among the best studied categories of ancient Greek art of the Archaic and Classical period. This is not only due to the high quality and huge numbers of the attic vases that have been preserved from the late 7th cent. to the late 4th cent. B.C., or the variety of their shapes and decoration. More than that, it is due to their importance for the research of one of the most interesting phenomena of Antiquity, that is the emergence of the city-state of Athens as one of the most important centres of the ancient Greek world. The recovery of Attic Black Figure and Red Figure vases all over the Mediterranean and even outside from it, witnesses to the appreciation they already enjoyed during the Archaic and the Classical period, and provides information on ancient economy and trade. The dedication of the vase painters in the depiction of the human figure and the selection of subjects referring to everyday life and, mostly, to Greek myths, allows the investigation of topics such as ancient Greek religion and cult, myths and rituals, even ancient Greek theatre. Moreover, subjects and style of vase painting reflect the lost works of monumental painting. It is only thanks to the vase paintings, that we gain an insight in the paintings admired by the ancient writers.

ARC - 343 ARTS, CRAFTS, TECHNIQUES OF HERITAGE (18th – 20th c.)

The aim of this seminar is:

to train students to record traditional craftsmen and workshops (buildings, tools and other equipment, raw materials, techniques, products, etc.), to evaluate ethnographic data and to compare them with information from published or unpublished (manuscripts) sources.to promote the research of arts, crafts and techniques of heritage, and the understanding of their contribution in the life and economy of the preindustrial society of the recent past

ARC - 327 ANTIOCH AND THE SYRO-PALESTINIAN COAST
Antioch was one of the most important cities of the Roman period. The intensive excavations of the 1930´s, before the area was submerged by the waters of the Euphrates dam, brought to light a large number of buildings and other remains (including a superb series of mosaics), that reflect the majesty of the city. Antioch has, once again, come to the forefront after the very successful exhibition and colloquium that took place in the USA during 2000/01. The seminar will examine the foundation and development of the city, its topography and various aspects of its cultural and artistic life.
HIS - 105 INTRODUCTION TO HISTORICAL STUDIES, METHODOLOGY AND PHILOSOPHY OF HISTORY
General theoretical issues. The formation of historiographic tradition (before historiography, birth and development of historiography from the beginning until the mid-19th century, formation of the modern science of history and methodology, new trends, interdisciplinarity of contemporary historiography). The technique of historical research. Writing history (preparation, collection, archiving and processing historical material, analysis of historical data, synthesis).

HIS - 108 INTRODUCTION TO MODERN AND CONTEMPORARY GREEK HISTORY
Introduction to modern Greek historiography and a brief view of modern and contemporary Greek history from Ottoman Rule to the fall of the dictatorship in Greece and the Turkish Invasion of Cyprus. A survey aiming at an awareness of the historical sequence of events, the development of political and state institutions, and social and political changes.

HIS - 112 INTRODUCTION TO BYZANTINE HISTORY
This course aims, in accordance with its introductory character, to provide the students with the basic knowledge of the different periods of Byzantine history from early Byzantine period until 1453. Special emphasis will be given to the basic chronological facts of each period, to the changing geographical expansion of the Byzantine territory, to the role and functionality of the institutions of the state mechanism and administrative system of the Byzantine empire as well as to the peculiar features of Byzantine society within the limits of the medieval world. Moreover, the endogenous and exogenous factors which were decisive for the formation of political and religious powers will be analysed, as well as those related to political decisions during the different phases of Byzantine history.
HIS - 134 INTRODUCTION TO MEDIEVAL WESTERN HISTORY
Basic chronological survey of the main events and currents in the West from the decline and fall of the Western Roman Empire to the Protestant Reformation. Students take a midterm exam that covers the Early Middle Ages (until 1000) and the High Middle Ages until 1191. The final exam stresses the second half of the High Middle Ages (1191-1300) and the Late Middle Ages (1300-1525). The basic text is Zacharias Tsirpanlis' Introduction to Medieval History (in Greek), although the students read sections from primary sources and modern works of history, often in English (but sometimes in Greek). They write a paper based on a medieval text, but first they wok in the library with contemporary writings from scholarly journals and books (in various languages) in order to complete an annotated bibliography of five entries. Two lessons are given over to slides of medieval architecture, and one to a visiting lecture.

HIS - 144 INTRODUCTION TO ANCIENT HISTORY
The aim of this course is, on one hand to provide students with the basic tools for their study of various topics of Ancient History and, on the other side, to present them a wide overview of both Greek and Roman History from the "Dark Ages" to the Late Roman Empire. It is divided in 3 main parts:

The consideration of the quantity and quality of our available sources (Historiographical, Epigraphical and Archaeological evidence).The formation and the development of guidelines to ancient Greek History, putting particular emphasis on the following political and social aspects:The transition from the Mycenaean society to the City-state.Social and constitutional transformations in the Archaic Times (Legislation-Tyranny-Colonisation).Sparta and Athens: From the Greek-Persian conflicts to the Peloponnesian War.The struggles over the hegemony during the endemic crisis of the City-state in 4th century B.C. and the emergence of Macedonia.The Macedonians as a vehicle of the diffusion of Greek cultural values in the East from Alexander to 168 B.C.Section C includes the presentation of the main events of Roman History, highlighting the prevailing phenomena which led to the transformation of a single city-state to an imperial power. The following subjects will be stressed:Rome, the Latins and Etruscans from 8th to 6th century B.C.The conquest of Italy and the different forms of political organisation through analysis of the Roman society and its institutions from the 5th century B.C. to the Annibalic Wars.The political and military stages of Roman attitude towards the Hellenistic World.Causes, duration and effects of the Civil wars.The constitutional patterns and the social basis of Augustus' Principate.The organization of the Roman Empire.

HIS - 181 INTRODUCTION TO MODERN EUROPEAN HISTORY (1789-1918)
This is an introductory survey of the history of Europe from the French Revolution to the end of the First World War. What is attempted is a "broad brush" survey of developments (mainly but not exclusively political and diplomatic) that have shaped the course of developments in Europe. Themes that are developed in the course include:

The French Revolution – Napoleonic Europe – The Congress of Vienna – The Revolutions of 1830 and 1848 – Napoleon III – The Franco-German War of 1870 and the unification of Germany – the scramble for empire – the origins of the first world war – the outbreak and the course of first world war – the Russian Revolution – the end of the war.

HIS - 221 THE EARLY BYZANTINE PERIOD (A.D. 330-610)
During the course of this lesson, which will take the form of a series of lectures, we shall attempt to understand the main features which constitute the late antique, or early Byzantine world, and thus appreciate reaction of contemporaries. Students will be encouraged to present oral works on chosen subject. If time permits, selected="true" passages will be studied, and emphasis will be laid on key subjects, such as the personality of Julian the Apostate, or the fall of Rome in A.D. 476.

HIS - 223 THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES: BYZANTIUM, THE WEST, ISLAM (A.D 600-900).
The period between A.D 600-900, is generally known as the early middle ages, and it is crucial as formative period for many of the institutions, characteristics and conditions which developed in later periods.
The course will aim at portraying the period horizontally, that is, examine the parallel developments in all parts of the area under consideration. This will allow us draw some conclusions as to the special characteristics pertaining to each century, rather than a thematic, isolated appreciation, spanning a period of more centuries. As expected, no single work will be sufficient for study, and students should refer to more sources, to be pointed out. It will also be absolutely essential for them to follow closely the lectures given in class.

HIS - 242: HELLENISTIC HISTORY: THE PTOLEMIES
This particular course deals with Ptolemaic Egypt from the 3rd century BC until 31 BC, with a survey of its political history followed by an analysis of the society and institutions of the kingdom, its economic and religious life, and also by an examination of the ideology of the Ptolemies with respect to the Greek conquerors and the conquered Egyptians. The course pays special attention to the relations between Alexandria and the provinces (Cyprus, Palestine, Cyrene, and the Aegean Islands), and it involves an analysis of the sources (narrative sources, inscriptions, papyri, archaeological finds). The final segment of the course is devoted to the issue of the Roman involvement in Ptolemaic Egypt from 168 BC to 31 BC, the period in which Alexandria, Cyprus, Athens, and Delos gradually fall under indirect Roman rule, exclusively serving its economic interests.

HIS - 249 CLASSICAL ATHENS
This course concerns the evolution of the institutions of the Athenian state from Solon until the end of the Peloponnesian War, and involves reading Aristotle's Constitution of Athens and the Pseudo-Xenophon's Constitution of Athens. It also deals with the topography of Athens in the Archaic and Classical eras, with an emphasis on the Ancient Agora and the connection between institutions and topography. The cults and religion of the city are treated as well.

HIS - 285 EUROPE 1918-1945: FROM THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES TO THE FALL OF NAZI GERMANY

The Treaty of Versailles – victors and vanquished – the new EuropeRevolutionary movements 1919-21 The 1920s: in search of a new balanceCooperation and collective security. The League of NationsThe Great Economic Crisis and its consequencesFascism and Nazism in Europe. Authoritarian models and their spread in the rest of EuropeTowards war: power politics and alliancesDress rehearsal: The Spanish civil warEuropean Culture in the inter-war yearsThe Second World War

HΙS 286 HISTORY OF SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE (c. 1800-c. 1990)
The module surveys the history of the peoples and states of the Balkan peninsula from the early 19th c. to date. The geographical focus is on the land mass covered by contemporary Albania, the former Yugoslavia and Bulgaria (with the necessary references to similarities and differences with Greece and to a lesser extent the Ottoman Empire). Within this chronological framework, a number of issues will be discussed:

a) ethnicity and national development of the Balkan states under foreign (mainly Ottoman) occupation; the movements for national emancipation and nationalism; irredentism; great power intervention; b) economic and political development and modernisation; the role and competition of the Great Powers, the clash of (local and imported) ideologies in the region during the 20th century: socialism, communism, fascism and their local variants; the effects of local and world wars on the region; the role the region played during the Cold war; the fall of communism and the role of the region in the new era.

HIS - 287 POLITICAL HISTORY OF MODERN GREECE (1914-1949): FROM THE FIRST WORLD

WAR TO THE END OF THE CIVIL WAR
Political and state developments. Political parties and institutions. The Greek foreign policy. The First World War, the "national schism" and the Ionian disaster. Military interventions (1922-1935) and the Metaxas dictatorship. The German occupation (1941-1944) and the Civil War (1946-1949).

HIS - 213 DIPLOMACY AND INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION IN BYZANTIUM
The subject matter of this lesson is the institutions, the ideological principles and the different kinds of communication which developed the Byzantine Empire during its diplomatic contacts with its neighbouring peoples. On the base of selected="true" texts of the primary sources there will be discussed topics like the Byzantine strategy for the approaching other peoples, the institutions of the Byzantine state for the organisation of embassies and for the reception of emissaries in the imperial court, the political objectives of Byzantine external politics as well as the mechanisms for the settlement of inter-state conflicts by means of diplomacy, the phenomena of reciprocal cultural penetration as consequence of diplomatic contacts.

HIS - 233 THE LATE MIDDLE AGES (1300-1500 A.D.)
The crisis of the 14th and 15th century: church and state, the "captivity" of the papacy in Avignon, Hundred Years' War, Black Death, Great Schism, conciliarism, heresy. The recovery 1450-1500: printing, humanism, new monarchy, international trade, unification of Spain, New World.

HIS - 282 THE HISTORY OF THE STATE OF ISRAEL FROM THE ZIONIST MOVEMENT UNTIL TODAY
The course will examine the historical context that led to the creation of the State of Israel as well as the development of the Jewish State after its establishment in 1948. The course will provide historical background and focus on the rise of the Zionist movement in Europe and on several issues of significant importance to the history of Israel such as war and peace, the party system, ideological trends in the Israel society and foreign policy.

Issues to be discussed:

The rise of the Zionist MovementWWI and the Jewish QuestionPalestine under British MandateThe Arab Revolt (1936 – 1939)WWII and the Jewish Revolt in PalestineThe first Arab – Israeli War and the establishment of the State of IsraelThe development of the Jewish StateThe party system in IsraelThe evolution of the National Security Doctrine in IsraelThe Arab – Israeli Wars of 1967 and 1973The Arab minority in IsraelThe invasion in Lebanon (1982) and the rise of the post-Zionist MovementThe Oslo Peace process

HIS - 307 THE HISTORY OF CYPRIOT VOLUNTEERISM DURING BRITISH RULE
Cypriot fighters in the Greek War of the Independence. The Cypriot Volunteerism and the revolutionary uprisings in Epirus, Thessaly, Macedonia and Crete. The participation of Cyprus in the Greco – Turkish War of 1897, the Balkan Wars (1912-1913) and the Asia Minor campaign (1919-1922). Cypriot volunteers in the British Army during World War I and II.

HIS - 308 NEO-HELLENIC DIASPORA AND EMIGRATION, 1830-TO DATE
This module surveys the Hellenic Diaspora, with particular emphasis on its history and activities in the past two centuries.
The term Diaspora is used in its widest possible sense, to include populations who live or have lived in areas where we have an unbroken Hellenic presence since antiquity (Asia Minor, S. Albania) as well as areas where Hellenic communities were founded during the modern times (Austria-Hungary, Egypt, Romania) or even during the contemporary period (Germany, Australia, the US).


HIS - 315 BYZANTIUM AND ITALY (A.D. 395-1071)
During the course of the early middle ages, Italy became a battlefield, and a place where conflicting interests, as well as new trends, found their expression. Taking as principal subject its relation to Byzantium, this seminar will focus both on the states and people involved, their influence, and the way in which local Italian communities reacted. Students attending this seminar will submit a written essay on a subject, which they will need to present orally.

ΗΙS 316 BYZANTIUM AND PERSIA (A.D 330-651).
This subject will be dealt with at seminar level, and it is intended to focus on bilateral relations between the two superpowers of late antiquity, but also tackle some of the internal structures, such as religious antagonism, which affected these relations.
After an introduction an general overview, it is expected that we will concentrate on the study of the peace-treaty of A.D 652, which is perhaps, the most fully reported treaty throughout the whole ancient period.
The seminar is designed for students who intend to pursue a more in depth study of a historical subject, and whose interest in the subject goes beyond marking criteria. A subject, usually a treaty, will be assigned to each student, who is expected to submit an oral presentation of his/her subject in class, and the written part soon afterwards.

HIS - 333 FRANKISH GREECE 1204-1261
The internal history of the Latin Empire of Constantinople and of Frankish Greece until the liberation of the capital in 1261: state, church, and society.

HIS - 341: THE ROMAN PROVINCES OF THE EAST
This seminar concerns the Roman provinces of Achaea, Macedonia, Asia, Syria, Cilicia, and Cyprus. It deals with the question "what is a province" and concentrates on the political history and organization of the Roman Empire, and society, economy, and religion in the Roman East.

ARC - 117 INTRODUCTION TO PREHISTORY
The course will introduce students to the Prehistory of the Eastern Mediterranean. The chronological periods, which will be covered are the Neolithic and the Chalcolithic, as well as, questions relating to the transition to the Bronze Age. The course will focus on issues such as the way of life in these first farming communities, architecture, burial customs and technology. As an integral part of the course there will be visits to the Archaeological Museum of Nicosia as well as archaeological sites of this period.

ARC - 118 THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE CITY KINGDOMS OF CYPRUS
Introductory course on the archaeology of the Mediterranean cultures during the Bronze Age. The geographical coordinates of the course are defined by the Greek peninsula to the west and by the Syro-Palestinian coast to the east. Although the emphasis is placed upon the development of the Aegean Bronze Age cultures - the Trojan, the Cycladic, the Helladic and the Minoan - an elementary introduction is also provided for the Egyptian, the Canaanite and the Cypriote Bronze Age cultures in the Eastern Mediterranean.

ARC - 123 INTRODUCTION TO CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY I:

FROM THE GEOMETRIC TO THE CLASSICAL PERIOD
This course examines the period from 1100-330 B.C. In other words, it comprises the Geometric, Archaic and Classical times. It investigates Ancient Greek Art and culture from the end of the Mycenaean world and the passage to the Geometric period, to the Archaic times that led to the unprecedented blossoming of the Classical period. It presents the specific character of each period and analyses its characteristics and achievements. It is based upon an initial presentation of representative works and monuments of each period and upon the analysis of works of sculpture, vase painting, monumental painting, architecture and metalworking. Furthermore, it investigates phenomena such as the appearance of myths in Greek art, the establishment of the human figure in the centre of artistic representation, and the quests that led to the genesis of monumental sculpture and monumental Greek temples.

ARC - 124 INTRODUCTION TO CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY II (HELLENISTIC AND ROMAN PERIODS)
General survey of the Hellenistic and Roman world: Hellenistic Kingdoms (323-30 B.C.), early Rome (264-30 B.C.) and the Roman Empire (27 B.C.-4th cent. A.D.). Main stages of development and characteristics of the two periods. Presentation and analysis of key monuments and works of art.

ARC - 135 INTRODUCTION TO EARLY CHRISTIAN ARTA AND ARCHAEOLOGY (4TH –7TH C.)
A survey of the Early Christian architecture and Art to the Christian World, with broad reference to the monuments of Cyprus.

ARC - 140 INTRODUCTION TO FOLK ART - TRADITIONAL CRAFTSMEN
Introduction: Definition of Folk Culture, Folk/Traditional Art, Folklore, Ethnology, Ethnography Cultural Anthropology, etc.Ethnography - Folklore in its modern perspective.Survey of research in the material life of the recent past both in Cyprus and Greece.Methods, sources and importance of Folk Art.The role of Ethnographic Museums in a modern society.Historical background: Period of Ottoman Rule, Period of British Administration.Socio-economic conditions during the time of floruit of Folk Art in Greece and Cyprus.

Traditional Craftsmen

Methods of recording traditional crafts.Processing of raw materials (cotton, flax, hemp, wool)Weaving, silk-makingCalico-printing, leatherworkBasketry, wood carving, stone carvingMetalworkPottery-making etc.

Lectures are accompanied by slides and video tapes. The course includes also visits to Ethnographic Museums.

ARC - 141 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIROMENTAL ARCHAEOLOGY
Unlike other fields of archaeology, the subjects of environmental archaeology do not include works of art, building, monuments or other artifacts. Environmental archaeology studies plant, animal and even human remains, relics of ancient agricultural activities, and other issues relating to the ancient environment. The study of all these enables us to reconstruct and better understand the ancient environment. With environmental archaeology we learn about the whole of human life in the past. The course will introduce students to the various fields of environmental archaeology (geoarchaeology, archaeobotany, zooarchaeology and palaeopathology) and the methods applied in each of these for the study of ancient environmental remains. As an integral part of the course, there will be visits to the Archaeological Museum of Nicosia as well as archaeological sites of this period.

ARC - 156 INTRODUCTION TO ANCIENT TECHNOLOGY B
This course will investigate various aspects of ancient technology such as: building methods and materials, means of transport on land and at the sea, ancient methods of communication, and methods of measuring, time, distance, volume and weight. One of the main aims of this course is to show how deep the roots of today's technology really are. As an integral part of the course there will be visits to the Archaeological Museum of Nicosia.

ARC - 225 ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE HELLENISTIC PERIOD
The Hellenistic period starts with the death of Alexander the Great and the division of his immense kingdom between his successors. It was out of this division of the ancient world into different smaller states, governed by Greek rulers, that Hellenistic culture was born. The different kingdoms had many common characteristics, such as language and religion, and this led to the creation of a cultural and artistic koine. The course will first examine the archaeological (and historical) evidence relative to the creation of these kingdoms and then analyse the main monuments and works of art of the period. These reflect, on one hand, the afore-mentioned koine, and, on the other, traditions that developed independently in each kingdom. Special emphasis will be given to Ptolemaic Egypt, the metropolis of the Hellenistic world.
ARC - 227 ROME CENTRE OF THE ANCIENT WORLD
Myths relating to the foundation of Rome. Brief survey of the history of Rome, up to the end of the Republic. Detailed study of Imperial Rome: topography, imperial forums, public buildings etc.

ARC - 250 ARCHAEOMETRY
Archaeometry has been defined as the application of physical and chemical methods to the study of ancient remains in an effort to gain a better and more accurate understanding of their age as well as the materials and methods of construction. Archaeometry has often been identified with dating techniques such as Radiocarbon and Thermoluminescence. Dating, however, is just one of the many applications of archaeometry. This course is an introduction to the basic techniques applied in archaeometry in an effort to address a number of archaeological problems such as dating, archaeological Prospection, material studies, provenance etc. This course is also offered as an elective to students from the departments of Physics and Chemistry.

ARC - 289 ANCIENT GREEK ARCHITECTURE
Architecture forms one of the major research fields of Classical Archaeology. Its monuments, that is the religious, public or private buildings, in Gods' precincts, agorae, cities and acropoleis of Ancient Greece shaped the place where the religious and political history of the Greek world evolved. For this reason, this course does not only aim to study the typology of the architectural types and to present the development of the various orders of the ancient Greek architecture, from the Early Iron age to the Hellenistic period, and from the Greek Mainland and the islands to the west coast of Asia Minor. It further aims to research topics such as the evolution of the temple architecture, from the simple orthogonal buildings to the monumental temples, the spatial relation of the buildings to the surrounding space, especially in the sanctuaries, the search for and the achievement of monumentality, the function of some architectural types, and in general the reflection of the social and political circumstances of each period in architecture.

ARC - 297 GREEK SANCTUARIES: FOUNDATION AND EVOLUTION
Greek sanctuaries do not only form the places where ancient Greeks forged their religious concepts, through myth and cult; much more they are the places where the social and political consciousness was awakened and a panhellenic concept was born. Since their early phases they were associated with the history of the Greek city-states and followed their evolution. The musical and athletic competitions in the great panhellenic sanctuaries, such as Olympia and Delphi, fuelled the common, panhellenic concept and turned the Gods' precincts into places of social exhibition, economic strength and political propaganda. This course aims to research topics such as the spatial organisation and the architectural development, from the simple altars of the Early Iron Age to the monumental temples, the problem of cultic continuity from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age, the expectations and the goals of the votaries and the types of the votives, the special functions of the sanctuaries as oracles or places of initiation rituals, the meaning and procedure of sacrifices and the act of dedication.

ARC - 298 ATTIC BLACK FIGURE AND RED FIGURE VASE PAINTING
Despite its humble material, Attic Black Figure and Red Figure vase painting is among the best studied categories of ancient Greek art of the Archaic and Classical period. This is not only due to the high quality and huge numbers of the attic vases that have been preserved from the late 7th cent. to the late 4th cent. B.C., or the variety of their shapes and decoration. More than that, it is due to their importance for the research of one of the most interesting phenomena of Antiquity, that is the emergence of the city-state of Athens as one of the most important centres of the ancient Greek world. The recovery of Attic Black Figure and Red Figure vases all over the Mediterranean and even outside from it, witnesses to the appreciation they already enjoyed during the Archaic and the Classical period, and provides information on ancient economy and trade. The dedication of the vase painters in the depiction of the human figure and the selection of subjects referring to everyday life and, mostly, to Greek myths, allows the investigation of topics such as ancient Greek religion and cult, myths and rituals, even ancient Greek theatre. Moreover, subjects and style of vase painting reflect the lost works of monumental painting. It is only thanks to the vase paintings, that we gain an insight in the paintings admired by the ancient writers.


ARC - 343 ARTS, CRAFTS, TECHNIQUES OF HERITAGE (18th – 20th c.)

The aim of this seminar is:

to train students to record traditional craftsmen and workshops (buildings, tools and other equipment, raw materials, techniques, products, etc.), to evaluate ethnographic data and to compare them with information from published or unpublished (manuscripts) sources.to promote the research of arts, crafts and techniques of heritage, and the understanding of their contribution in the life and economy of the preindustrial society of the recent past

ARC - 327 ANTIOCH AND THE SYRO-PALESTINIAN COAST
Antioch was one of the most important cities of the Roman period. The intensive excavations of the 1930´s, before the area was submerged by the waters of the Euphrates dam, brought to light a large number of buildings and other remains (including a superb series of mosaics), that reflect the majesty of the city. Antioch has, once again, come to the forefront after the very successful exhibition and colloquium that took place in the USA during 2000/01. The seminar will examine the foundation and development of the city, its topography and various aspects of its cultural and artistic life.

HIS - 105 INTRODUCTION TO HISTORICAL STUDIES, METHODOLOGY AND PHILOSOPHY OF HISTORY
General theoretical issues. The formation of historiographic tradition (before historiography, birth and development of historiography from the beginning until the mid-19th century, formation of the modern science of history and methodology, new trends, interdisciplinarity of contemporary historiography). The technique of historical research. Writing history (preparation, collection, archiving and processing historical material, analysis of historical data, synthesis).

HIS - 108 INTRODUCTION TO MODERN AND CONTEMPORARY GREEK HISTORY
Introduction to modern Greek historiography and a brief view of modern and contemporary Greek history from Ottoman Rule to the fall of the dictatorship in Greece and the Turkish Invasion of Cyprus. A survey aiming at an awareness of the historical sequence of events, the development of political and state institutions, and social and political changes.

HIS - 112 INTRODUCTION TO BYZANTINE HISTORY
This course aims, in accordance with its introductory character, to provide the students with the basic knowledge of the different periods of Byzantine history from early Byzantine period until 1453. Special emphasis will be given to the basic chronological facts of each period, to the changing geographical expansion of the Byzantine territory, to the role and functionality of the institutions of the state mechanism and administrative system of the Byzantine empire as well as to the peculiar features of Byzantine society within the limits of the medieval world. Moreover, the endogenous and exogenous factors which were decisive for the formation of political and religious powers will be analysed, as well as those related to political decisions during the different phases of Byzantine history.
HIS - 134 INTRODUCTION TO MEDIEVAL WESTERN HISTORY
Basic chronological survey of the main events and currents in the West from the decline and fall of the Western Roman Empire to the Protestant Reformation. Students take a midterm exam that covers the Early Middle Ages (until 1000) and the High Middle Ages until 1191. The final exam stresses the second half of the High Middle Ages (1191-1300) and the Late Middle Ages (1300-1525). The basic text is Zacharias Tsirpanlis' Introduction to Medieval History (in Greek), although the students read sections from primary sources and modern works of history, often in English (but sometimes in Greek). They write a paper based on a medieval text, but first they wok in the library with contemporary writings from scholarly journals and books (in various languages) in order to complete an annotated bibliography of five entries. Two lessons are given over to slides of medieval architecture, and one to a visiting lecture.

HIS - 144 INTRODUCTION TO ANCIENT HISTORY
The aim of this course is, on one hand to provide students with the basic tools for their study of various topics of Ancient History and, on the other side, to present them a wide overview of both Greek and Roman History from the "Dark Ages" to the Late Roman Empire. It is divided in 3 main parts:

The consideration of the quantity and quality of our available sources (Historiographical, Epigraphical and Archaeological evidence).The formation and the development of guidelines to ancient Greek History, putting particular emphasis on the following political and social aspects:The transition from the Mycenaean society to the City-state.Social and constitutional transformations in the Archaic Times (Legislation-Tyranny-Colonisation).Sparta and Athens: From the Greek-Persian conflicts to the Peloponnesian War.The struggles over the hegemony during the endemic crisis of the City-state in 4th century B.C. and the emergence of Macedonia.The Macedonians as a vehicle of the diffusion of Greek cultural values in the East from Alexander to 168 B.C.Section C includes the presentation of the main events of Roman History, highlighting the prevailing phenomena which led to the transformation of a single city-state to an imperial power. The following subjects will be stressed:Rome, the Latins and Etruscans from 8th to 6th century B.C.The conquest of Italy and the different forms of political organisation through analysis of the Roman society and its institutions from the 5th century B.C. to the Annibalic Wars.The political and military stages of Roman attitude towards the Hellenistic World.Causes, duration and effects of the Civil wars.The constitutional patterns and the social basis of Augustus' Principate.The organization of the Roman Empire.

HIS - 181 INTRODUCTION TO MODERN EUROPEAN HISTORY (1789-1918)
This is an introductory survey of the history of Europe from the French Revolution to the end of the First World War. What is attempted is a "broad brush" survey of developments (mainly but not exclusively political and diplomatic) that have shaped the course of developments in Europe. Themes that are developed in the course include:

The French Revolution – Napoleonic Europe – The Congress of Vienna – The Revolutions of 1830 and 1848 – Napoleon III – The Franco-German War of 1870 and the unification of Germany – the scramble for empire – the origins of the first world war – the outbreak and the course of first world war – the Russian Revolution – the end of the war.

HIS - 221 THE EARLY BYZANTINE PERIOD (A.D. 330-610)
During the course of this lesson, which will take the form of a series of lectures, we shall attempt to understand the main features which constitute the late antique, or early Byzantine world, and thus appreciate reaction of contemporaries. Students will be encouraged to present oral works on chosen subject. If time permits, selected="true" passages will be studied, and emphasis will be laid on key subjects, such as the personality of Julian the Apostate, or the fall of Rome in A.D. 476.

HIS - 223 THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES: BYZANTIUM, THE WEST, ISLAM (A.D 600-900).
The period between A.D 600-900, is generally known as the early middle ages, and it is crucial as formative period for many of the institutions, characteristics and conditions which developed in later periods.

The course will aim at portraying the period horizontally, that is, examine the parallel developments in all parts of the area under consideration. This will allow us draw some conclusions as to the special characteristics pertaining to each century, rather than a thematic, isolated appreciation, spanning a period of more centuries.

As expected, no single work will be sufficient for study, and students should refer to more sources, to be pointed out. It will also be absolutely essential for them to follow closely the lectures given in class.

HIS - 242: HELLENISTIC HISTORY: THE PTOLEMIES
This particular course deals with Ptolemaic Egypt from the 3rd century BC until 31 BC, with a survey of its political history followed by an analysis of the society and institutions of the kingdom, its economic and religious life, and also by an examination of the ideology of the Ptolemies with respect to the Greek conquerors and the conquered Egyptians. The course pays special attention to the relations between Alexandria and the provinces (Cyprus, Palestine, Cyrene, and the Aegean Islands), and it involves an analysis of the sources (narrative sources, inscriptions, papyri, archaeological finds). The final segment of the course is devoted to the issue of the Roman involvement in Ptolemaic Egypt from 168 BC to 31 BC, the period in which Alexandria, Cyprus, Athens, and Delos gradually fall under indirect Roman rule, exclusively serving its economic interests.

HIS - 249 CLASSICAL ATHENS
This course concerns the evolution of the institutions of the Athenian state from Solon until the end of the Peloponnesian War, and involves reading Aristotle's Constitution of Athens and the Pseudo-Xenophon's Constitution of Athens. It also deals with the topography of Athens in the Archaic and Classical eras, with an emphasis on the Ancient Agora and the connection between institutions and topography. The cults and religion of the city are treated as well.

HIS - 285 EUROPE 1918-1945: FROM THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES TO THE FALL OF NAZI GERMANY

The Treaty of Versailles – victors and vanquished – the new EuropeRevolutionary movements 1919-21The 1920s: in search of a new balanceCooperation and collective security. The League of NationsThe Great Economic Crisis and its consequencesFascism and Nazism in Europe. Authoritarian models and their spread in the rest of EuropeTowards war: power politics and alliancesDress rehearsal: The Spanish civil warEuropean Culture in the inter-war yearsThe Second World War

HΙS 286 HISTORY OF SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE (c. 1800-c. 1990)
The module surveys the history of the peoples and states of the Balkan peninsula from the early 19th c. to date. The geographical focus is on the land mass covered by contemporary Albania, the former Yugoslavia and Bulgaria (with the necessary references to similarities and differences with Greece and to a lesser extent the Ottoman Empire). Within this chronological framework, a number of issues will be discussed:

a) ethnicity and national development of the Balkan states under foreign (mainly Ottoman) occupation; the movements for national emancipation and nationalism; irredentism; great power intervention; b) economic and political development and modernisation; the role and competition of the Great Powers, the clash of (local and imported) ideologies in the region during the 20th century: socialism, communism, fascism and their local variants; the effects of local and world wars on the region; the role the region played during the Cold war; the fall of communism and the role of the region in the new era.

HIS - 287 POLITICAL HISTORY OF MODERN GREECE (1914-1949): FROM THE FIRST WORLD WAR TO THE END OF THE CIVIL WAR
Political and state developments. Political parties and institutions. The Greek foreign policy. The First World War, the "national schism" and the Ionian disaster. Military interventions (1922-1935) and the Metaxas dictatorship. The German occupation (1941-1944) and the Civil War (1946-1949).

HIS - 213 DIPLOMACY AND INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION IN BYZANTIUM
The subject matter of this lesson is the institutions, the ideological principles and the different kinds of communication which developed the Byzantine Empire during its diplomatic contacts with its neighbouring peoples. On the base of selected="true" texts of the primary sources there will be discussed topics like the Byzantine strategy for the approaching other peoples, the institutions of the Byzantine state for the organisation of embassies and for the reception of emissaries in the imperial court, the political objectives of Byzantine external politics as well as the mechanisms for the settlement of inter-state conflicts by means of diplomacy, the phenomena of reciprocal cultural penetration as consequence of diplomatic contacts.

HIS - 233 THE LATE MIDDLE AGES (1300-1500 A.D.)
The crisis of the 14th and 15th century: church and state, the "captivity" of the papacy in Avignon, Hundred Years' War, Black Death, Great Schism, conciliarism, heresy. The recovery 1450-1500: printing, humanism, new monarchy, international trade, unification of Spain, New World.

HIS - 282 THE HISTORY OF THE STATE OF ISRAEL FROM THE ZIONIST MOVEMENT UNTIL TODAY
The course will examine the historical context that led to the creation of the State of Israel as well as the development of the Jewish State after its establishment in 1948. The course will provide historical background and focus on the rise of the Zionist movement in Europe and on several issues of significant importance to the history of Israel such as war and peace, the party system, ideological trends in the Israel society and foreign policy.

Issues to be discussed:

The rise of the Zionist MovementWWI and the Jewish QuestionPalestine under British MandateThe Arab Revolt (1936 – 1939)WWII and the Jewish Revolt in PalestineThe first Arab – Israeli War and the establishment of the State of IsraelThe development of the Jewish StateThe party system in IsraelThe evolution of the National Security Doctrine in IsraelThe Arab – Israeli Wars of 1967 and 1973The Arab minority in IsraelThe invasion in Lebanon (1982) and the rise of the post-Zionist MovementThe Oslo Peace process

HIS - 307 THE HISTORY OF CYPRIOT VOLUNTEERISM DURING BRITISH RULE
Cypriot fighters in the Greek War of the Independence. The Cypriot Volunteerism and the revolutionary uprisings in Epirus, Thessaly, Macedonia and Crete. The participation of Cyprus in the Greco – Turkish War of 1897, the Balkan Wars (1912-1913) and the Asia Minor campaign (1919-1922). Cypriot volunteers in the British Army during World War I and II.

HIS - 308 NEO-HELLENIC DIASPORA AND EMIGRATION, 1830-TO DATE
This module surveys the Hellenic Diaspora, with particular emphasis on its history and activities in the past two centuries.
The term Diaspora is used in its widest possible sense, to include populations who live or have lived in areas where we have an unbroken Hellenic presence since antiquity (Asia Minor, S. Albania) as well as areas where Hellenic communities were founded during the modern times (Austria-Hungary, Egypt, Romania) or even during the contemporary period (Germany, Australia, the US).
HIS - 315 BYZANTIUM AND ITALY (A.D. 395-1071)
During the course of the early middle ages, Italy became a battlefield, and a place where conflicting interests, as well as new trends, found their expression. Taking as principal subject its relation to Byzantium, this seminar will focus both on the states and people involved, their influence, and the way in which local Italian communities reacted. Students attending this seminar will submit a written essay on a subject, which they will need to present orally.

ΗΙS 316 BYZANTIUM AND PERSIA (A.D 330-651).
This subject will be dealt with at seminar level, and it is intended to focus on bilateral relations between the two superpowers of late antiquity, but also tackle some of the internal structures, such as religious antagonism, which affected these relations.
After an introduction an general overview, it is expected that we will concentrate on the study of the peace-treaty of A.D 652, which is perhaps, the most fully reported treaty throughout the whole ancient period.
The seminar is designed for students who intend to pursue a more in depth study of a historical subject, and whose interest in the subject goes beyond marking criteria. A subject, usually a treaty, will be assigned to each student, who is expected to submit an oral presentation of his/her subject in class, and the written part soon afterwards.

HIS - 333 FRANKISH GREECE 1204-1261
The internal history of the Latin Empire of Constantinople and of Frankish Greece until the liberation of the capital in 1261: state, church, and society.

HIS - 341: THE ROMAN PROVINCES OF THE EAST
This seminar concerns the Roman provinces of Achaea, Macedonia, Asia, Syria, Cilicia, and Cyprus. It deals with the question "what is a province" and concentrates on the political history and organization of the Roman Empire, and society, economy, and religion in the Roman East.