Course List

Curriculum of Study

Basic and Core Courses

Specialization Courses

General Electives

Courses Offered to Students of Other Departments

Courses Offered to Erasmus Students




PHY 011 - Modern Physics for Poets

PHY 012 - Physics and Applications

PHY 101 - Principles of Physics

PHY 102 – Physics for Biologists and Chemists

PHY 103 - Physics for Mathematicians

PHY 111 - General Physics I

PHY 112 - General Physics II

PHY 113 - Modern Physics

PHY 114 - Physics Laboratory I

PHY 115 - Physics Laboratory II

PHY 131 - General Physics I: Mechanics and Waves and Thermodynamics

PHY 132 – General Physics II: Electricity, Electromagnetism and Optics

PHY 134 - Physics for Engineers

PHY 137 - Physics for the Medical School

PHY 145 - Computational Methods in Physics

PHY 211 - Classical Mechanics

PHY 213 - General Physics III

PHY 216 - Physics Laboratory III

PHY 221 - Mathematical Methods of Physics I

PHY 222 - Mathematical Methods of Physics II

PHY 225 - Quantum Mechanics I

PHY 231 - Electromagnetism I

PHY 235 - Electromagnetism II - Special Theory of Relativity

PHY 301 - Solid State Physics

PHY 302 - Advanced Physics Laboratory I

PHY 321 - Nuclear Physics

PHY 322 - Advanced Physics Laboratory II

PHY 326 - Quantum Mechanics II

PHY 331 - Particle Physics

PHY 341 - Electronics

PHY 342 - Statistical Physics and Thermodynamics

PHY 347 - Computational Physics

PHY 351 - Research in Physics  

PHY 361 - Principles and Practice of Physics

PHY 405 - Cosmology and General Theory of Relativity

PHY 411 - Final Year Project I

PHY 412 - Final Year Project ΙΙ 

PHY 415 - Biophysics

PHY 427 - Atomic and Molecular Physics

PHY 435 - Theoretical Physics

PHY 445 - Electronic Systems


PHY 011 - Modern Physics for Poets (5 ECTS)

Culture as a function of our beliefs about space, time, boundaries, the vacuum, chaos. Principle of Relativity–reversal of conventional viewpoints. Special and General Relativity. Warped Space and Time, Topology, Escher’s art. Concepts of space and time in the Middle Ages and in naive–primitive–eastern–modern art. Wavefunctions–fuzzy boundaries. Virtual and real. Superposition–Interpretation. Metamorphic Images in Surrealism. The observer (reader, spectator) as a participant in Physics (literature, art). Hypertexts. Aristotelian and Multivalued Logic. Self-Referentiality, Fractals. The Vacuum as a dynamic concept in Physics and Art. Dynamic entities in Postmodern Culture.

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PHY 012 - Physics and Applications  (5 ECTS)

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PHY 101 - Principles of Physics  (6 ECTS)

Classical Physics: Inertial Frames and Newton's Laws. Conservation of Energy and Momentum. Centre of Mass. Rotational Motion. Modern Physics: Photoelectric effect. The wave-particle character of the microscopic world. The Uncertainty Principle. Nucleus and Radioactivity. Nuclear Fission and Fusion. The Michelson-Morley Experiment. Relativity of Space and Time. The Twin Paradox. Equivalence of gravity field and accelerated frames. Gravity and Geometry.

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PHY 102 – Physics for Biologists and Chemists  (6 ECTS)

Mechanics: Work, energy, momentum, torque, angular momentum, oscillations, fluid mechanics. Electricity and Magnetism: Electric fields, potential, dipoles, polarization, dielectrics, electric oscillations, magnetism in matter, diamagnetism, paramagnetism, alternating current circuits, electromagnetic radiation, semiconductors. Wave Motion - Optics: Interference and diffraction of light waves, polarization of light, chemical applications of polarization and of light scattering, Bragg’s Law, absorption and emission spectra.


PHY 103 - Physics for Mathematicians (6 ECTS)

Elements of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Mechanics (and reference to Hamilton-Jacobi formulation as preparation for the passage to Quantum Mechanics). Elements of Electromagnetism / Classical Electrodynamics (Maxwell-Lorentz theory) – Introduction to the Special Theory of Relativity. Elements of Quantum Mechanics: quantum states as vectors - and observables as (self-adjoint) operators - in Hilbert spaces, position and momentum representations and Fourier transforms, physical meaning of eigenvalues and eigenstates of Hermitian operators, solution of Schrödinger equation (viewed as an ordinary or partial differential equation) in simple quantum systems – Uncertainty Principle – Ehrenfest and Hellmann-Feynman theorems – Symmetries and Generators, gauge symmetry (and some of its nontrivial consequences).

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PHY 111 - General Physics I (8 ECTS)

Measurement Units, Dimensional Analysis, Vectors. Motion in one and more dimensions, Velocity and Acceleration, Reference Frames. Forces, Newton's Laws. Work, Mechanical Energy. Momentum, Centre of Mass. Torque, Angular Momentum, Moment of Inertia. Oscillations. Universal Gravitation, Kepler's Laws. Fluid Mechanics.

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PHY 112 - General Physics II (7.5 ECTS)

Electric Fields, Gauss's Law, Electric Potential, Capacitance and Dielectrics, Current and Resistance, DC Electrical Circuits. Magnetic Fields, Sources of Magnetic Field, Biot-Savart and Ampere’s Laws. Faraday's Law, Induction and Inductors, AC Electrical Circuits, Displacement current and Maxwell’s Equations, Electromagnetic Waves.

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PHY 113 - Modern Physics (6 ECTS)

Thermodynamics: thermal expansion, ideal gases, first law of thermodynamics, kinetic theory of gases, thermal engines, entropy, second law of thermodynamics.  Special Relativity: principle of relativity, axioms of special relativity, time dilation, length contraction, Lorentz transformations, relativistic momentum and energy, relativistic collisions.  General Relativity: principle of equivalence, curved path of light, warped space and time, black holes. Quantum theory of light: black body radiation, photoelectric effect, Compton effect, wave-particle duality. Atomic nature of matter, the atom of Bohr, De Broglie matter waves, Heisenberg’s principle of indeterminacy, quantum diffraction.

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PHY 114 - Physics Laboratory I (8 ECTS)

Theory of error analysis: Types of errors. Error propagation: Examples and Applications. Gaussian and Poisson distributions. Error Probability. Compatibility of Measurements. Weighted Average.  Least squares theory. Data Analysis Diagrams. Experiments: Simple pendulum. Free Fall. Projectile Motion. Collisions. Linear Accelerated Motion. Conservation of mechanical energy. Angular oscillations. Moment of inertia of solids. Gyroscope. Air Resistance.

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PHY 115 - Physics Laboratory II (7.5 ECTS)

Maxwell Distribution of Velocities. Heat Capacity of Gases. Electrolysis. Falling Ball Viscometer. Charging of a Capacitor. Measurement of Magnetic Fields. Magnetic Moment. Magnetic Induction. RLC Circuits. Radiation - Stefan Boltzmann Law. Thermal and Electrical conductivity of Metals. Measurement of the Magnetic Field of the Earth. Simulation of Electromagnetic Fields.

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PHY 131 - General Physics I: Mechanics and Waves and Thermodynamics (6 ECTS)

(For the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

Measurement Units, Coordinate Systems. Motion in one and more dimensions, Velocity, Acceleration, Reference frames. Forces, Newton’s Laws. Work, Mechanical energy. Momentum, Center of mass. Torque, Angular Momentum, Moment of Inertia. Oscillations. Universal Gravitation, Kepler’s Laws. Wave equation, Transverse and Longitudinal waves. Phase and Group velocity. Thermodynamics. Heat and the First and Second Law, Engines, Refrigerators and Entropy, Blackbody Radiation, Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis, Photoelectric Effect.

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PHY 132 – General Physics II: Electricity, Electromagnetism and Optics (6 ECTS)

(For the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

Electricity and Electromagnetism: Electric Fields. Gauss’ Law. Electric Potential. Capacitance and Dielectrics. Current and Resistance. Magnetic Fields. Sources of Magnetic Field. Faraday’s Law. Induction and Motors. Electromagnetic Waves, Doppler Effect for sound and light. Optics: Geometrical Optics, Haygen’s and Fermat’s principle, Optical Instruments. Interference, Young’s Experiment, Michelson’s Interferometer, Multiple Beam Interference, Rayleigh’s Resolution Criterion, Fraunhofer Diffraction, Diffraction Grading, Bragg’s Law, Polarization, Malu’s Law, Double Refraction, Production of circularly polarized light.

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PHY 134 - Physics for Engineers

(For the Department of Civil Engineering)

Introduction to Thermodynamics: Temperature, Thermal Dilation, Heat and Mechanisms of Heat Propagation, Internal Energy, First Thermodynamic Law. Ideal Gases: Law, Thermodynamic Processes, Internal Energy, Heat Capacity. Kinematics: Instantaneous and Average Velocity-Acceleration, Projectile Motion. Newton’s Laws and Applications, Friction, Drag, Circular-Relative Motion. Kinetic-Potential Energy, Work, Principle of Energy Conservation. Linear Momentum and Momentum Conservation, Collisions, Center of Mass. Dynamics of Rotational Motion: Angular Velocity-Acceleration, Angular Momentum and Angular Momentum Conservation. Periodical Motion: Harmonic Oscillator, Equations and Energy, Simple and Natural Pendulum. Mechanical Waves: Mathematical Description, Wave Velocity-Acceleration-Energy.

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PHY 137 - Physics for the Medical School (6 ECTS)

Elements of Mechanics (Newton’s laws; Forces and Translational Equilibrium; Torques and Rotational Equilibrium; Work and Energy; Collisions; Elements of Elasticity Theory; Statics, Kinematics, and Mechanical Properties of the Human Body). Fluids (Pressure and Density; Principles of Archimedes and Pascal; Continuity equation; Bernoulli Equation; Viscosity and Poiseuille Flow; Pressure and flow of Blood in the Human Body). Harmonic Motion and Waves (Properties of Sound; Doppler Effect; Ultrasounds; the Human Ear and Hearing). Elements of Electricity (Insulators and Conductors; Coulomb Law; Electric Field; Electric Potential; Capacity; Dielectrics; Electric Current and Ohm’s Law; Nerve Conduction; ECG); Geometrical Optics (Index of refraction; Mirrors; Diffraction; Snell’s law; The Lens Equation; the Camera; the Magnifying Glass; the Microscope; the Human Eye; Vision-correcting Lenses).Elements of Nuclear Physics (Nuclear Forces; Radioactivity; α, β, γ Decay; Interaction of Radiation with Matter; Dosimetry). Medical Applications of Molecular Biophysics (Relation between Structure and Dynamics of Macromolecules; Applications in Drug Design.

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PHY 145 - Computational Methods in Physics (7.5 ECTS)

Introduction: The Linux operating system, Emacs editor, plotting, computer implementation of numbers, basic commands of the Fortran programming language. Ordinary differential equations: Numerical differentiation, Euler method, Runge-Kutta method.  Applications to simple physical systems: planetary orbits, electronic circuits. Algebraic equations: Bisection method, Newton-Raphson algorithm.  Systems of linear equations: Inverse matrices, matrix diagonalization  Αpplications in Classical Mechanics.  Data analysis: Probability distributions, least squares method, fits.  Numerical integration: Simpson method, Gaussian quadrature, multiple integrals in Physics.  Deterministic randomness: Random number generators, simple simulations, Monte Carlo evaluation of integrals.  Chaotic systems: Logistic map, chaotic behaviour in Classical Mechanics, Lorenz attractor.  High level programming languages: Introduction to the program Mathematica, Symbolic computations, numerical and analytical evaluations of integrals and equations. Applications in Physics.

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PHY 211 - Classical Mechanics (7.5 ECTS)

Inertial Frames of Reference and Generalized Coordinates, Newtonian Mechanics, Lagrangian Formalism, Conservation Laws, Motion in a Central Potential, Gravitational Fields, Small Amplitude Oscillations, Nonlinear Oscillations and Chaos, Scattering, Non-inertial Frames of Reference, Rigid Body Motion, Hamilton Equations.

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PHY 213 - General Physics III (7.5 ECTS)

Wave Equation, Transverse and longitudinal waves, Phase and group velocity, Electromagnetic waves, Doppler effect for sound and light, Geometrical optics, Huygen's and Fermat's principle, Optical instruments, Interference, Young's experiment, Michelson’s interferometer, Michelson’s and Morley's experiment, Multiple-beam interference, Rayleigh's resolution criterion, Fraunhofer diffraction, Diffraction grating, Bragg's law, Polarization, Malus' law, Brewster's law, Double refraction, Production of circular polarized light.

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PHY 216 - Physics Laboratory III (7.5 ECTS)

The course contains experimental exercises in Waves and Optics.  Waves on a Spring, String Oscillations, Ultrasound Propagation in Air and Liquids, Doppler shift in ultrasound.  Optics: the Laws of Lenses, optical assemblies (microscope, telescope), Thin Film Interference, Newton Interference Apparatus, Michelson Interferometer, Polarization of Light, Fraunhofer Diffraction, Prism Spectrometer, Diffraction Grating Spectrometer, Measurement of the Speed of Light, Fresnel’s Laws.

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PHY 221 - Mathematical Methods of Physics I (7.5 ECTS)

Vector Calculus and Applications: Multiple integrals, Line and surface integrals. Gradient, divergence, curl. The theorems of Green, Gauss, Stokes. Applications in the mechanics of rigid bodies, Hydrodynamics and Electromagnetism. Systems with axial and spherical symmetry. Fourier Series: Fourier series and integrals. Convergence criteria. Applications in wave mechanics. Orthogonal functions in Electrostatics and in Quantum Mechanics. Applications of Ordinary Differential Equations in Mechanics, Electromagnetism, Quantum Mechanics: Classification. Existence and uniqueness of solutions. Physical systems with linear, nonlinear and chaotic behavior. Conservative systems, driving forces. Analytic methods for solving second order equations. Systems of equations. Power series solutions. Laplace transform. The Dirac function. Introduction to Numerical Methods, Applications to scattering and to the many-body problem.

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PHY 222 - Mathematical Methods of Physics II (7.5 ECTS)

Boundary value problems for ordinary and Partial Differential Equations (PDEs), Sturm-Liouville Theory, Self-adjoint Boundary Conditions. Separation of Variables in the Wave, Heat, the Schrödinger and the Laplace Equations, Bessel Functions, Legendre Polynomials, Spherical Harmonics. Continuous Sets of Eigenfunctions, the Dirac δ-function, the Heaviside θ-function, Concept and Use of Propagator. Green’s Functions, Poisson Equation, Inhomogeneous Helmholtz Equation, Quantum Scattering and Born Series. Finite Regions and the Method of Images. Minimal substitution in Schrödinger’s equation and application to the Physics of Landau Levels.

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PHY 225 - Quantum Mechanics I (7.5 ECTS)

Schrödinger’s Εquation and the Wavefunction. The Statistical Interpretation, Wavefunction Normalization, Position/Momentum Operators, the Hamiltonian. The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. Stationary States. Solutions of Schrödinger’s Equation for the following One-dimensional Potentials: Infinite Square Well, Harmonic Oscillator, Free particle, Delta Function Potential, Finite Square Well.  The Formalism of Quantum Mechanics, Hilbert space. Operators and Commutation Relations. Generalized Statistical Interpretation and Uncertainty Relations. Angular Momentum and Three-Dimensional Potentials.

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PHY 231 - Electromagnetism I (7.5 ECTS)

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PHY 235 - Electromagnetism II - Special Theory of Relativity (7.5 ECTS)

Electromagnetic (E/M) Waves: Waves in one dimension (wave equation, sinusoidal waves, boundary conditions, reflection and transmission, polarization). E/M waves in vacuum (the wave equation for E and B monochromatic plane waves, energy and momentum in E/M waves). E/M waves in matter (propagation in linear media, reflection and transmission). Absorption and dispersion (E/M waves in conductors, reflection at a conducting surface, the frequency dependence of permittivity). Guided waves (waveguides, EH waves in a rectangular waveguide, the coaxial transmission line).
Potential and fields: The potential formulation (scalar and vector potentials, Gauge transformations, the Coulomb and Lorentz gauge). Retarded and advanced potentials. Lienard-Wiechert potentials. The fields of a moving point charge.
Electromagnetic radiation: Dipole radiation (electric and magnetic dipole radiation, radiation from an arbitrary source, power radiated by point charge, radiation reaction).
Electrodynamics and relativity: The special theory of relativity (Einstein’s postulates, the geometry of relativity, the Lorentz transformations, the structure of space-time, applications). Relativistic mechanics (proper time and proper velocity, relativistic energy and momentum, relativistic kinematics, relativistic dynamics, applications). Relativistic electrodynamics (the transformation of the fields, the field tensor, electrodynamics in tensor notation, relativistic potentials).

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PHY 301 - Solid State Physics (7.5 ECTS)

Crystal Structure, Lattices, Reciprocal Lattice, Bragg and Laue Equations, Diffraction of X-rays by Crystals. Crystal Bonds, Madelung Energy. Crystal Vibrations in Monoatomic/Diatomic Lattice, Phonons, Specific Heat, Einstein and Debye Models, Thermal Conductivity of Solids. Free Electron Gas, Electrical Resistivity of Metals, Hall Effect, Cyclotron Resonance. Energy Bands, Nearly Free Electron Model, Bloch Theorem, Kronig-Penney Model. Semiconductors: Energy Gap, Holes, Effective Mass, Impurity Conductivity.  Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves in Crystal Lattices, Optical Constants, Absorption, Excitons, Luminescence. Electrons in Strong Magnetic Fields, Landau Levels, Quantum Hall Effect. Phenomenology of Superconductivity, Meissner Effect, Cooper Pairs.

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PHY 302 - Advanced Physics Laboratory I (7.5 ECTS)

The Hall effect in p-germanium. The behavior and study of photocells. The bandgap of germanium. The Hall effect in metals. Spectroscopy of semiconductors. X-ray diffraction - Bragg scattering of a crystal structure. A study of microwaves - the behavior of microwaves. Advanced interferometry - methods and measurements. The Ar+ ion laser - the study of a gas laser system.

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PHY 321 - Nuclear Physics (7.5 ECTS)

Introduction, Nuclear Properties, Nuclear Models, Radioactive Decay, Alpha Decay, Beta Decay, Gamma Decay, Nuclear Reactions and their Kinematics, Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion, Nuclear Astrophysics, Big Bang Cosmology.

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PHY 322 - Advanced Physics Laboratory II (7.5 ECTS)

Introduction. Measurement of the Specific Charge of the Electron. Observation of the Zeeman Effect. Observation of the Electron Spin Resonance. The Compton Effect. X-Ray Fluorescence and Moseley's Law. Rutherford Scattering Spectroscopy of α-Particles. Spectroscopy of β-Particles. Spectroscopy of γ-Rays. The Geiger-Mueller Counter.

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PHY 326 - Quantum Mechanics II (7.5 ECTS)

The Hydrogen Atom, Angular Momentum and Spin, Addition of Angular Momenta, Identical Particles, The Periodic Table, Time Independent Perturbation Theory, The Variational Method, Time Dependent Perturbation Theory, Zeeman and Stark Effects, Radiation, Einstein Coefficients, The Aharonov-Bohm Effect, Measurement Theory, Basic Principles of Atomic Physics, Modern Developments.

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PHY 331 - Particle Physics (7.5 ECTS)

Brief historical background, particles of matter and fundamental interactions. The Standard Model, particle lifetime and decays, processes and cross- sections. Interactions of particles and radiation with matter, particle detectors and accelerator systems. Applications of Particle Physics in Medicine, Technology and Industry. Symmetries, quantum numbers and conservation laws. Symmetry violations, local gauge transformations, Quantum Electrodynamics. Introduction to Feynman diagrams, electromagnetic interactions and coupling constant. Weak Interactions, charged and neutral currents, the π, μ and τ- lepton decays. The CKM matrix. Quantum Chromodynamics, asymptotic freedom and confinement. The parton model, e+e- scattering to hadrons. Scattering of e/p, deep inelastic scattering and the hadron quark model. Isospin and parton structure functions. Properties of intermediate Vector Bosons, Electroweak Theory. Spontaneous symmetry breaking, the Higgs Mechanism and the discovery of the Higgs boson. Neutrino masses and oscillations. CP violation and recent experimental results. Problems of the Standard Model and the need for physics beyond the Standard Model.

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PHY 341 - Electronics (7.5 ECTS)

The objective of this course is to introduce the students to modern electronics, providing a thorough, comprehensive and practical coverage of electronic devices, circuits and applications. Laboratory experience is an essential part of the course. Most of the lectures will describe how a variety of basic modern electronic elements such as diodes, bipolar junction transistors, field-effect transistors operate and how to analyze a circuit containing these elements. Contents: DC and AC circuits. Semiconductors and applications to circuits. PN junction diodes. Transistors. Field-effect transistors. Digital circuits. In parallel with these lectures there are associated experiments in the above areas, giving the student hands-on experience with electronics.

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PHY 342 - Statistical Physics and Thermodynamics (7.5 ECTS)

Τhermodynamics: Equilibrium and equations of state, Kinetic theory of the ideal gas, Laws of thermodynamics, Applications of thermodynamic laws, Thermodynamic potentials, Phase transitions. Statistical Mechanics: Number of microstates and entropy, The axiom of equal probabilities, Microcanonical ensemble and applications, Canonical ensemble and applications (Ideal gas, Maxwell’s velocity distribution, Paramagnetism, Gases with internal degrees of freedom, Equipartition and Virial theorems, Debye Model, Black body radiation), The grand canonical ensemble, The grand canonical ensemble of ideal gas, Fermi and Bose gases, Bose-Einstein condensation.

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PHY 347 - Computational Physics (7.5 ECTS)

A C++ based computational physics course covering topics such as solving problems in linear algebra, finding of eigenvectors and eigenvalues, solutions of ordinary and partial differential equations, methods for chaotic and stochastic situations, use of Markov chains, Monte Carlo simulations with applications in physics, Metropolis algorithm and applications in physics problems, random walks and the 2-D Ising model, fitting techniques with and without constraints.

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PHY 351 - Research in Physics (2 ECTS)

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PHY 405 - Cosmology and General Theory of Relativity (7.5 ECTS)

Observations leading to General Relativity. Phenomena studied by Cosmology. Spacetime in General Relativity. Geodesics and gravitational potential. Stress-energy tensor. Riemann curvature tensor. Einstein equations. The Schwarzschild solution. Classic tests of General Relativity: Calculation and experimental verification. Black holes: Schwarzschild, Kerr. Their thermodynamics, evaporation. Observations. Gravitational radiation, detectors, power of gravitational radiation. The expanding Universe. Robertson-Walker metric. Friedmann models. Event horizon. Particle horizon. Big Bang: The evidence for it. Physical processes at various stages of the Universe. Dark matter and dark energy.

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PHY 415 - Biophysics (7.5 ECTS)

Brief introduction to the central dogma of molecular biology. Brief description of proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, carbohydrates, and of their biological functions. Protein structure. Protein dynamics. Examples of protein function. Intramolecular and intermolecular forces that determine structure, dynamics, and functions of proteins. Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Description of chemical and biological reactions in terms of energy surfaces. Examples of protein structure-function relationships. Enzyme kinetics and actions. Allosteric mechanisms. Two-state systems in quantum mechanics and the Landau-Zener transition probability. Application of the Landau-Zener probability to tunnelling phenomena in biology. Protein electron transfer.

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PHY 427 - Atomic and Molecular Physics (7.5 ECTS)

Atomic Physics: Angular momentum and spin. The hydrogen atom. Approximate methods for the solution of the Schrodinger equation. Atomic structure and spectra. Molecular Physics: The Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The chemical bond: The H2+ molecular ion, the H2 molecule, valence-bond and molecular-orbital theories. The Hartree-Fock method. Molecular electonic structure and spectra.

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PHY 435 - Theoretical Physics (7.5 ECTS)

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PHY 445 - Electronic Systems (7.5 ECTS)

Introduction to semiconductor physics: general characteristics of semiconductors, crystal structure, energy bands, doping, carrier transport phenomena. Bipolar devices: device technology, p-n junction, charge depletion zones, I - V curves.  Metal semiconductor contacts: Energy band, Schottky effect, carrier transport processes, ohmic contacts. Transistor: introduction, bipolar transistor, MOSFET, JFET. Photonic devices: introduction, radiative transitions, light emitting diodes (LED), laser diodes.  Photodetectors: photodiode, avalanche photodiode, phototransistor, digital imaging sensors.  Solar cells: introduction, p-n junction solar cells, thin lm solar cells. Nanoelectronics - Spintronics: introduction, physics of magnetic storage nanoparticles in electronic, spin in electronics and future memories.

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