Staff Catalogue


Department of Law
FEB 02 - Faculty of Economics and Management, 017
University Campus

Alina Tryfonidou joined the University of Cyprus in September 2023. Prior to this she worked at the Universities of Leicester (Lecturer, 2007-2011) and Reading (Lecturer 2011-2012; Associate Professor 2013-2018; Full Professor 2018-2021) in the United Kingdom, and at Neapolis University Pafos (Full Professor, 2021-2023) in Cyprus. Dr Tryfonidou is also a Visiting Professor at the School of Law, University of Reading since 2021, an Associate of King's College (AKC) since 2008, and a Fellow of the UK Higher Education Academy (now Advance HE) (FHEA) since 2016. 

Dr Tryfonidou obtained her LLB (2001), LLM (2002) and PhD (2008) from King’s College London. In 2003, she passed the exams of the Cypriot Bar Council and completed a pupillage with a top law firm in Cyprus, and in 2004 she completed a Blue Book Traineeship at the European Commission (DG MARKT – now DG GROW) in Brussels. Dr Tryfonidou has held visiting positions at King's College London (2005-2007 and 2010-2011), the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies (IALS) in London (2010-2011), and the University of Bergamo in Italy (2023). Since 2021 she is a member of the editorial board of the Cyprus Review. In 2024 she took over as a joint coordinator of the Berkeley Center on Comparative Equality & Anti-Discrimination Law (BCCE) LGBTIQ Working Group.

Dr Tryfonidou’s main research interests lie in EU free movement law, family law, and LGBTIQ+ rights. She is a frequent invited speaker at academic conferences and she has been invited to speak before the European Parliament (the PETI and JURI committees) and to advise the Council of Europe’s European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI) Task Force on LGBTI issues, and to give guest lectures at events organised, inter alia, by the European Parliament’s LGBTI Intergroup, the European Commission Representation in Cyprus, the European Parliament’s Renew Europe and Socialists and Democrats political groups, the Academy of European Law (ERA), Equinet, the European Institute of Public Administration (EIPA), ILGA-Europe and NELFA. In addition to monographs, chapters in edited volumes, articles in academic journals, and online blog posts and articles, Dr Tryfonidou has authored a study on ‘The Cross-Border Recognition of Parenthood in the EU’ (2023) and has co-authored a study on ‘Obstacles to the free movement rights of rainbow families in the EU’ (2021), both of which were commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the PETI committee. In 2021-2022, Dr Tryfonidou was a member of the European Commission Expert Group on the Recognition of Parenthood between Member States which had as its aim to assist the European Commission in the preparation of a legislative proposal for a Regulation which will require the cross-border recognition of parenthood in the EU. Her work has been cited by several Advocates General (Bot, Sharpston, Szpunar, and Wathelet) before the Court of Justice of the EU.


Google Scholar profile

Orcid profile profile

  • The legal protection of LGBTIQ+ rights (esp. under EU law)
  • EU free movement law
  • EU citizenship
  • European family law
  • Cypriot family law
  • EU anti-discrimination law
Authored Books  
  1.  The Impact of Union Citizenship on the EU's Market Freedoms (Hart, 2016)
  2.  Reverse Discrimination in EU law (Kluwer, 2009)
Chapters in Edited Volumes  
  1. ‘EU Gender Politics and Law: The Case of Sexual Minorities’ in R. Deplano, G. Gentile, L. Lonardo and T. Nowak (eds), Interdisciplinary Research Methods in Law: A Handbook(Edward Elgar, 2024), pp. 20-38
  2. ‘Surrogacy in the ECHR and the European Institutions’ in K. Trimmings, S. Shakargy and C. Achmad (eds), Research Handbook on Surrogacy and the Law (Edward Elgar, 2024), pp. 151-168 
  3. ‘The Politics of Sexual Identity and the Emerging Constitutional Battles in Europe’ in D. Kochenov and M. Tushnet (eds), Research Handbook on the Politics of Constitutional Law (Edward Elgar, 2023), pp. 533-550 
  4. 'The NH case' in G. Butler and A. Lazowski (eds), Shaping EU Law the British Way: UK Advocates General at the Court of Justice of the European Union (Hart, 2022), pp. 547-555
  5. 'Unrecognised "States" and EU law: The Anastasiou I ruling' in G. Butler and R. A. Wessel (eds), EU External Relations Law: The Cases in Context (Hart, 2022), pp. 269-278
  6. 'Commentary on Articles 45, 46, 47 and 48 TFEU' in H-J. Blanke and S. Mangiameli (eds), Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union - A Commentary (Springer, 2021), pp. 959-1012
  7. 'Law and sexual minority rights in the EU: navigating a political minefield' in P. J. Cardwell and M-P. Granger (eds), Research Handbook on the Politics of EU Law (Edward Elgar, 2020), pp. 204-223
  8. 'EU law and the right of rainbow families to move freely between EU Member States' in F. Hamilton and G. Noto la Diega (eds), Same-Sex Marriage: Public Opinion and Legal Change (Routledge, 2020), pp. 150-167
  9. 'Rainbow families and EU free movement law' in Bergamini and C. Ragni (eds), Fundamental Rights and Best Intersts of the Child in Transnational Families (Intersentia, 2019), pp. 75-96
  10. 'The impact of the Framework Equality Directive on the Protection of LGB persons and same-sex couples from discrimination under EU law' in U. Belavusau and K. Henrard (eds), EU Anti-Discrimination Law Beyond Gender (Hart, 2018), pp. 229-248
  11. 'EU law' in R. Auchmuty (ed.), Great Debates in Gender and Law (Palgrave Macmillan, 2018), pp. 71-81
  12. 'Free movement of persons provisions through the lenses of "discrimination" and "restriction"' in M. Andenas, T. Bejjedak and L. Pantaleo (eds), The Reach of Free Movement (Springer, 2017), pp. 57-84
  13. 'Citizenship-for-sale schemes and EU law: can third-country nationals buy their way into becoming subjects of EU law?' in S. Bardutzky and E. Fahey (eds), Framing the Subjects and Objects of Contemporary EU law (Edward Elgar, 2017), pp. 145-157
  14. 'Discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity' in S. Vogenauer and S. Weatherill (eds), General Principles of Law: European and Comparative Perspectives (Hart, 2017), pp. 365-394
  15. 'The federal implications of the transformation of the market freedoms into sources of rights for the Union citizen' in D. Kochenov (ed.), Citizenship and Federalism in Europe (Cambridge University Press, 2017), pp. 316-340
  16. 'Free movement of workers and Union citizens' in U. Neergaard, J. van de Gronden, M. Krajewski and E. Szyszczak (eds), Legal Issues of Services of General Interest (TCM Asser Press, 2013), pp. 161-183
  17. 'The overseas application of the customs duties provisions of the FEU Treaty: first, tentative, steps towards the resolution of the reverse discrimination conundrum' in D. Kochenov (ed.), EU Law of the Overseas: Outermost Regions, Associated Overseas Countries and Territories, Territories Sui Generis (Kluwer, 2011), pp. 221-244
  18. 'The outer limits of Article 28 EC: Purely internal situations and the development of the Court's approach through the years' in C. Barnard and O. Odudu (eds), The Outer Limits of EU law (Hart, 2009), pp. 197-224
  19. 'Purely internal situations and reverse discrimination in a Citizens' Europe: Time to "reverse" reverse discrimination?' in P. G. Xuereb (ed.), Issues in Social Policy: A new agenda (Progress Press, 2009), pp. 11-29
Articles and Notes in Peer-Reviewed Journals
  1. ‘The cross-border legal recognition of parenthood under European law: Current law and future prospects’ (2024) 46 Journal of Social Welfare and Family Law (Special Issue), pp. 267-285 (open access)
  2. The new Greek legislation opening marriage to same-sex couples: an analysis’ (2024) 1 Equal: Rivista di Diritto Antidiscriminatorio, pp. 117-126 (open access)
  3. 'Cross-border recognition of parenthood in the EU: Comments on the Commission proposal of 7 December 2022' (2023) 24 ERA Forum, pp. 149-162
  4. 'The ECJ recognises the right of rainbow families to move freely between EU Member States: The V.M.A. ruling' (2022) 47 European Law Review, pp. 534-549
  5. 'Positive state obligations under European law: A tool for achieving substantive equality for sexual minorities in Europe' (2020) Erasmus Law Review, pp. 98-112 (open access)
  6. 'Case C-507/18 NH v Associazione Avvocatura per i diritti LGBTI - Rete Lenford: Homophobic speech and EU anti-discrimination law' (2020) 27 Maastricht Journal of European and Comparative Law, pp. 513-521 (open access)
  7. 'EU free movement law and the children of rainbow families: Children of a lesser God?' (2019) 38 Yearbook of European Law, pp. 220-266
  8. 'The parenting rights of same-sex couples under European law' (2019) Marriage, Families and Spirituality, pp. 176-194 (open access)
  9. 'The ECJ recognises the right of same-sex spouses to move freely between EU Member States: the Coman ruling' (2019) 44 European Law Review, pp. 663-679
  10. 'Introductory Note to Case C-673/16 Relu Adrian Coman and Others v. Inspectoratul General Pentru Imigrari and Ministerul Afacerilor Internet' (2019) 58 International Legal Materials, pp. 823-836
  11. 'The EU top Court rules that married same-sex couples can move freely between EU Member States as "spouses": Case C-673/16 Relu Adrian Coman, Robert Clabourn Hamilton, Asociatia Accept v. Inspectoratul General pentru Imigrari, Ministerul Afacerilor Internet' (2019) 27 Feminist Legal Studies, pp. 211-221 (open access)
  12. 'The legal position of LGBT persons and same-sex couples in Cyprus' (2017) 29 Cyprus Review, pp. 183-213 (open access)
  13. 'Another failed opportunity for the effective protection of the rights of same-sex couples under EU law: Parris v. Trinity College Dublin and Others' (2017) 2 Anti-Discrimination Law Review, pp. 83-95
  14. 'The Leger ruling as another example of the ECJ's disappointingly reticent approach to the protection of the rights of LGB persons under EU law' (2016) 41 European Law Review, pp. 91-104
  15. 'EU free movement law and the legal recognition of same-sex relationships: the case for mutual recognition' (2015) 21 Columbia Journal of European Law, pp. 195-248
  16. 'The notions of "restriction" and "discrimination" in the context of the free movement of persons provisions: from a relationship of interdependence to one of (almost complete) independence' (2014) 33 Yearbook of European Law, pp. 385-416
  17. '(Further) signs of a turn of the tide in the CJEU's citizenship jurisprudence: Case C-40/11, Iida, judgment of 8 November 2012' (2013) 20 Maastricht Journal of European and Comparative Law, pp. 302-320
  18. 'Redefining the outer boundaries of EU law: the ZambranoMcCarthy and Dereci trilogy' (2012) 18 European Public Law, pp. 493-526
  19. 'The impact of EU law on nationality laws and migration control in the EU's Member States' (2011) 25 Journal of Immigration, Asylum and Nationality law, pp. 358-379
  20. 'Resolving the reverse discrimination paradox in the area of customs duties: The Lancry saga' (2011) 22 European Business Law Review, pp. 311-336
  21. 'Further steps on the road to convergence among the market freedoms' (2010) 35 European Law Review, pp. 36-56
  22. 'The free movement of goods, the overseas countries and territories adn the EU's outermost regions: some problematic aspects' (2010) 37 Legal Issues of Economic Integration, pp. 317-338
  23. 'In search of the aim of the EC free movement of persons provisions: has the Court of Justice missed the point?' (2009) 46 Common Market Law Review, pp. 1591-1620
  24. 'Family reunification rights of (migrant) Union citizens: Towards a liberal approach' (2009) 15 European Law Journal, pp. 634-653
  25. 'Reverse discrimination in purely internal situations: An incongruity in a Citizens' Europe' (2008) 35 Legal Issues of Economic Integration, pp. 43-67
  26. 'Jia or "Carpenter II": the edge of reason' (2007) 32 European Law Review, pp. 908-918
  27. 'Was Keck a half-baked solution after all?' (2007) 34 Legal Issues of Economic Integration, pp. 167-182
  28. 'Annotation of case C-293/02, Jersey Produce Marketing Organisation Ltd v. States of Jersey and Jersey Potato Export Marketing Board (2006) 43 Common Market Law Review, pp. 1727-1742
  29. 'Kunqian Catherine Zhu and Man Lavette Chen v. Secretary of State for the Home Department: Further cracks in the "Great Wall" of the European Union?' (2005) 11 European Public Law, pp. 527-541
  30. 'Carbonati Apuani Srl v. Comune di Carrara: should we reverse "reverse discrimination"?' (2005) 16 King's College Law Journal, pp. 373-381
  31. 'Redefining the notion of belonging in a Citizens' Europe: The Queen (on the application of Dany Bidar) v. London Borough of Ealing & Secretary of State for Education and Skills' (2005) 12 Irish Journal of European Law, pp. 217-232
  32. 'Mary Carpenter v. Secretary of State for the Home Department: the beginning of a new ear in the European Union?' (2003) 14 King's College Law Journal, pp. 81-86
Articles and Notes in Greek
  1. 'Το δικαίωμα στην οικογενειακή επανένωση των οικογενειών "ουράνιο τόξο" κάτω από το ενωσιακό δίκαιο: ποια η ευθύνη της Ένωσης;' (2022) 4 Ευρωπαϊκό Δίκαιο, pp. 269-280
  2. 'Το Ευρωπαϊκό δίκαιο ενώπιον των Κυπριακών δικαστηρίων ουσίας' (2009) 2 Λυσίας, pp. 26-32
  3. Case-note on the Supreme Court of Cyprus Cases 1522/2006, 1523/2006, Netmed N. V. v. Επιτροπής Προστασίας Ανταγωνισμού, Multichoice (Cyprus) Public Company Ltd v. Επιτροπής Προστασίας Ανταγωνισμού, Judgment of 7 September 2007' (2008) 1 Λυσίας, pp. 50-54